Multiculturalism in Canada | The Canadian Encyclopedia

Multiculturalism in Canada

Through articles, features, exhibits and timelines, this collection explores the communities and multiculturalism that define Canadian society today.

Multicultural Mural


Old Map of Western Canada.


This timeline includes events related to colonization in Canada

Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker), Plains Cree Chief, 1885

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous nations tell their own stories about the origins of the world and their place in it; all claim their ancestry dates to Time Immemorial. At the same time, there is considerable archeological debate about when humans first came to North America, though broad assumptions suggest waves of migration from northeastern Asia, by both land bridge and boat, between 30,000 and 13,500 years ago. Note: This timeline presents key events and developments in Indigenous history in what is now Canada, from Time Immemorial to present. While no timeline can be exhaustive in its coverage, it provides a broad chronological overview to support educators and students.

Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean at the "door no return" in Elmina Castle in Ghana, 2006 .

Black History

Black history refers to the stories, experiences, and accomplishments of people of African origin. Black history did not begin in recent times in Canada, but in ancient times in Africa. People connected by their common African history and ancestry have created Black history here. The African-Canadian population is made up of individuals from a range of places across the globe including the United States, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, Africa, and Canada.

Pier 21


The movement of nationals of one country into another for the purpose of resettlement is central to Canadian history. This timeline charts significant migrations that have shaped our nation.

Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism

Languages Policy

This timeline includes events and debates related languages policy in Canada.

Education Guides