Elections are a process in which Canadian citizens express their preferences about who will represent and govern them. Those preferences are combined to decide which candidates will become Members of Parliament. Elections are fundamental to the operation of democracy in Canada as they are the central means by which citizens grant authority to those who govern them.
The story of the CCF began during the Great Depression. The stock market crash of 1929 and a lengthy drought devastated the economy. Neither Prime Minister Mackenzie King and his Liberals nor R.B. Bennett and the Conservative Opposition were inclined to do anything, believing that the economic crisis required no extraordinary measures.
In 1891, Conservative Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald won his final election as prime minister — successfully campaigning on the fear, real or imagined, that the Liberal promise of "unrestricted reciprocity" with the United States would lead to American annexation of Canada.
The party whip is a member of a party caucus who ensures that the number of MPs in the legislature, or at committee meetings, is adequate to win a vote if one is called. The division bells in the HOUSE OF COMMONS ring until whips are satisfied that sufficient members of their own party are present.
In a primarily rural society, such as 19th-century Canada, privacy was basically a territorial concept. Today, privacy tends to be defined not only territorially but as the right of individuals to determine when, how and to what extent information about themselves is to be communicated to others.
Memories are made of such things - if any of those patrons could later find anyone who believed them. Other than that, there are several prospective lessons to be drawn from the latest escapade of Jean Chrétien, full-time prime minister and sometime prankster.
Bouliane has received numerous awards, including the PRO Canada prize for Climats (1980). He was the recipient of the 1980 Robert Fleming Award, and in 1982 his work Jeux de Société won the CBC National Radio Competition for Young Composers and the Gaudeamus Foundation Competition in Holland.