Vern Harper, or Asini, meaning "stone" in Cree, dissident, teacher (b at Toronto 17 June 1936). Harper is a representative of the more radical wing of the Aboriginal movement of the 1970s. After a troubled early life, he became politically active as vice-president of the Ontario Métis and Non-Status Indian Association (1972-74). With his wife Pauline Shirt Harper (b at Saddle Lk, Alta, 13 July 1943), he organized the Native People's Caravan, a cross-Canada trek ending in a lengthy encampment in Ottawa (1974-75) which succeeded in bringing together Indigenous organizations to publicize their grievances. The ideology of the demonstration had strong traditionalist and spiritual elements which reappeared in the Wandering Spirit Survival School of Toronto, founded by Pauline and Vern Harper in 1976. He is author of Following the Red Path: The Native Peoples' Caravan, 1974 (1979).