Saskatchewan is part of the Prairie region and is the only province with entirely artificial boundaries. It is bordered by the US to the south, the Northwest Territories to the north, and Manitoba and Alberta to the east and west respectively.
Saskatchewan is part of the Prairie region and is the only province with entirely artificial boundaries. It is bordered by the US to the south, the Northwest Territories to the north, and Manitoba and Alberta to the east and west respectively. It was created from the Northwest Territories in 1905, at the same time as Alberta, and shares with that province the distinction of having no coast on salt water. The name, which was first used officially for a district of the Northwest Territories in 1882, is derived from an anglicized version of a Cree word, kisiskâciwanisîpiy, meaning “swiftly flowing river.”
Land and Resources
The Precambrian Shield, running diagonally southeast across Saskatchewan, covers approximately the northern third of the province. The Shield is characterized by rugged rock exposures and many lakes, and includes a sandy region south of Lake Athabasca. South of the Shield, also diagonal from west to east, is the area commonly called the "grain belt," level or gently rolling plains marked by fertile soils that make Saskatchewan one of the world's great wheat producers.
On the western boundary and across the southwest corner is another plains region of generally higher altitudes, with rolling and hilly terrain distinct from that of the grain belt. In the extreme southwest the province shares the Cypress Hills with Alberta. Cypress Hills is the highest point of land in Canada between the Rocky Mountains and Labrador. Much of Saskatchewan's landscape consists of undulating slopes, unlike the flat horizons featured in the stereotyped image of the Prairies.
Large areas of Saskatchewan once formed the bottom of a sea that disappeared millions of years ago. In geological terms much of the modern landscape is relatively young, having been shaped during the Quaternary period, i.e., within the last million or so years. The oldest formations, the Precambrian, predated the sea, and there is evidence of impressive mountain ranges that eroded over time into the plains characteristic of today. Erosion, molten uprisings, the ebb and flow of the sea and its attendant water courses all contributed in different geological eras to the development of the formations which are now part of the grain belt, gas and oil fields, and deposits of salt, clays, coals, potash and other valuable minerals.
The main geological influence of the Quaternary period in Saskatchewan was glaciation, which variously polished and scarred substantial areas of exposed rock, and left rich sediments elsewhere. The glaciers moved southwest across the land, leaving behind lakes (that at their largest covered most of the province) and marking the landscape with drumlins, eskers and moraines. (The buildings on the University of Saskatchewan's campus are made largely of multicoloured stone deposited by the glaciers.) At one time or another the glaciers touched all of Saskatchewan except for two small pockets of high land in the extreme south, which still have flora and fauna showing significant variations from their counterparts in the rest of the province. The last glaciers melted in the south approximately 16,000 to 18,000 years ago, and further north as recently as 8,000 years ago.
Generally inhospitable to agriculture because of the climate and thin soil, the northern third of the province is marked by swamp and muskeg, lichened rock and forest characteristic of the Shield. The altitudes of the grain belt drop markedly from west to east. Similarly, from south to north, levels of 600 and 900 m above sea level (common in the southwest) slope to 150 and 300 m in the northeast, causing the province’s extensive river systems to flow to Hudson Bay. The soils permit agricultural settlement in what is roughly the southern half of the province, while in the northern half the climate largely prevents the use of what little arable land there is. The cultivated areas of the southern portion depend on a variety of soils, predominantly brown and black, whose texture ranges from loamy sands to clays.
Saskatchewan's natural vegetation is divided from north to south into six fairly distinct zones, all of which cross the province diagonally southeast. A band of subarctic forest tundra exists along the northern boundary, and south of that is a broad region of northern coniferous forest, with a third band of mixed woods below that. The northern agricultural belt is aspen parkland, the central is mid-grass prairie and the southernmost is short grass prairie. Each of the six zones corresponds roughly to particular soil deposits. Soil erosion is a continuing problem in the province: the broad river systems providing one type; and the winds, so well known that they are a familiar element in prairie literature, creating another.
A superficial view of maps of Saskatchewan suggests that the province has an abundance of water, both on the surface and in aquifers (i.e., underground layers of water-bearing rock) occurring at varying depths. The province is drained by parts of four major basins: the Mackenzie and Churchill in the north; the Saskatchewan and Qu'Appelle-Assiniboine in the south. The larger aquifers are estimated to be capable of yielding about 10 per cent of the annual flow of the South Saskatchewan River. However, aquifers can be tapped only through technology that may be expensive, with individual wells generally not large producers. Much of the most accessible surface water is in the north, where agricultural settlement is minimal.
Both agriculture and industrial development (particularly the production of potash) require large amounts of water, and Saskatchewan is heavily dependent on river flows and precipitation, neither of which is amenable to provincial control. The river systems in the agricultural sector utilize water that comes mainly from snow melt in the Rocky Mountains, and snowfall there is subject to wide variations. Precipitation within the province is similarly unreliable, and what does arrive may suffer high rates of evaporation. A characteristic feature of the Saskatchewan farming landscape is the dugout, a large excavation designed to catch the spring runoff from the fields.
Annual precipitation in the province varies enormously, both for the province as a whole and for the differing zones within it. The drought of the 1930s was intensive and widespread, but it was most severe in the south and diminished northwards into the parkland. The average annual precipitation runs from a few centimetres to about 50, and generally becomes increasingly heavy from the southwest to the northeast. Since the late 19th century, there has been an ongoing effort to expand irrigation in the province.
The climate of Saskatchewan can in one year include many extremes. Three main climatic zones, corresponding roughly to the main zones of vegetation, cross the province. They range from cold, snowy areas in the north, through more moderate areas in the grain belt, to semi-arid steppes in the southwest. January temperatures below -50°C and July temperatures above 40°C have been recorded, as have January temperatures well above freezing and July temperatures well below. Days free of frost can number from 60 to over 100 in any year.
In the arable sections the last spring frost usually comes in early June, and the first autumn frost in early September. The relatively short growing season profoundly affects what agriculture can produce in Saskatchewan, for grains are sensitive to frost from germination until harvest. In one sense the number of frost-free days is a misleading indicator of the growing season, as the province's northern setting also produces, in the summer, early sunrises and late sunsets. In the grain belt, on 21 June the sun rises before 5 a.m. and sets after 9:30 p.m. For the same reason winter days are short: on 21 December sunrise is after 9 a.m. and sunset at 5 p.m. Blizzards in winter and thunderstorms in summer are common features of the climate, and the southern half of the province occasionally experiences tornadoes.
Soils and water are the fundamental resources of any heavily agricultural region, but Saskatchewan also contains immensely valuable deposits of minerals such as potash and uranium, as well as fossil fuels.
The forest resources are limited by soil and climate. Even so, nearly three-quarters of the province is wooded, and nearly one-half of the stands yield a harvest. In dry years losses from fire are high, not only in the immediate destruction of potential pulp and lumber, but in the loss of habitat for wildlife. Wildlife supports recreational and commercial fishing, trapping and hunting, and is an important part of the way of life of Aboriginal peoples.
Saskatchewan's mammals include most of those familiar on the Canadian landscape, although two of the largest in the west are rarely sighted — the cougar is still seen, but evidence of the grizzly bear has all but disappeared. The province is a main flyway for an abundance of waterfowl and songbirds, and supports a lush insect life which both impedes and helps agriculture. Wildlife is a major factor in attracting hunters and fishermen, and the province is highly ranked in the value of wild pelts taken. The commercial freshwater fisheries, although valuable locally where they exist, are among the smallest in Canada.
Saskatchewan is the chief beneficiary of a major federal statute, the 1935 Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act, which, with amendments, has facilitated the transformation of the agricultural landscape through the creation of dams and dugouts. The need for conserving water on the prairies is a subject few disagree on, and federal policy is supplemented by related provincial policies.
The province is also home to 39 provincial parks and two national parks, all of which help preserve wildlife and ecosystems. Grasslands National Park, for example, is the only place in Canada the black-tailed prairie dog roams in its natural habitat, while Prince Albert National Park protects a section of the boreal forest as well as a white pelican nesting colony.
Evidence of Aboriginal peoples in Saskatchewan can be traced to at least 10,000 BCE, when hunters followed the migratory herds of bison, leaving behind arrowheads and ashes. The first European explorers, most of them seeking routes for the fur trade, appeared late in the 17th century, and were in time joined by more scientific travellers who expanded knowledge of the area throughout the 19th century. Actual settlement was preceded in most sections by the establishment, in 1873, of the North-West Mounted Police, after which homesteaders, attracted by land that was all but free, poured in at an accelerated rate.
The census of 1881 revealed 19,114 inhabitants, that of 1911, 492,432 and that of 1931, 921,785. Thereafter the population levelled off and even declined considerably, partly because the Second World War drained off people to the armed forces and industrial plants elsewhere; after 1961 the population fluctuated between 920,000 and 955,000. In 2011, the population was 1,033,381.
The first immigrants settled in areas suited to agriculture in the southern half of Saskatchewan where most residents still live. Towns and villages served as supply depots for farm implements and related service industries, and, with the rise of non-agricultural production, rural areas have steadily lost population to urban ones.
Although Saskatchewan lacks cities comparable in size to Canada’s large metropolises such as Toronto, Montreal, or Vancouver, its urban population has grown from 16 per cent in 1901 to 67 per cent in 2011. With a population of 222,189 (2011), Saskatoon is the province’s largest city, while the capital, Regina, is second in size with 193,100 (2011). The next largest community is Prince Albert at 35,129, followed by Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift Current and North Battleford.
Prince Albert, as the province's most northerly city, performs a special function as a "gateway to the north," of particular importance as the point of departure for recreational and forest areas. Despite its predominantly urban population, Saskatchewan's vast expanses of open landscape, combined with the conspicuous architecture of grain elevators in the villages and towns, continues to convey the impression of a predominantly agricultural province.
Saskatchewan's labour force has reflected the changes in the provincial economy, as urban workers have steadily replaced farmers and their helpers. Union organization began around the turn of the century in Moose Jaw and Regina, principally among skilled tradesmen in printing and railways, but the development of the economy did not encourage influential union activity of the kind familiar in heavily industrialized communities.
The largest single unions are not primarily of steelworkers or automobile makers, but of teachers and public servants, although unions are active in such areas as the retail and wholesale trades, and in oil and potash. Provincial governments under the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) and NDP were perceived as being particularly friendly to organized labour.
Although the province was one of the chief sufferers during the Great Depression and drought of the 1930s, the technology of later decades has been more conducive to sustaining its labour force. Historically an exporter of labour to other provinces, Saskatchewan’s resource-rich economy helped reverse this narrative following the 2008 recession. Since then, Saskatchewan has experienced a net population increase due to interprovincial migration, and is one of the only provinces — aside from Alberta — to have benefitted from this trend.
The province’s appeal is in large part tied to its low unemployment rate. Historically one of the lowest in the country, the rate remained low post-2008 recession, even as other provinces struggled to rebound. In 2012, Saskatchewan’s unemployment rate was 4.7 per cent, second only to Alberta. By comparison, the national average for that year was 7.2 per cent.
In 2012, the majority of the province’s labour force was employed by the service sector, with trade, health care and social assistance, and education being the top three employers.
Language and Ethnicity
English is the dominant mother tongue in Saskatchewan. The 2011 census, however, revealed a growing number of other languages spoken at home, with German, Cree, French, Ukrainian and Tagalog numbering the highest. The current predominance of English was written into the conditions by which Saskatchewan joined Confederation in 1905. Owing to the protest of Clifford Sifton, minister of the interior, Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier withdrew provisions made in the Autonomy Acts (1905) to protect the rights of French Catholics. This moment was historically significant because Laurier’s acquiescence to Sifton’s anti-French stance effectively closed the door to bilingualism in Western Canada.
When European settlement of Saskatchewan began in earnest, residents of French origin slightly outnumbered those of British, but both comprised less than 11 per cent of the population — almost all the rest were Aboriginal peoples. The influx of settlers brought few new French (migration from Québec to the West was considered by some influential clergy to be a form of exile), but it did bring large numbers of British and other Europeans whose descendants, in one or two generations, also became English-speaking.
Those of European ancestry continue to make up the majority of Saskatchewan’s population. In 2011, for example, 76 per cent of the population identified as being of European decent, with German, English, Scottish and Canadian being the most-cited ethnic origins. However, the province’s visible minority population is growing: in 2006 these communities made up 3.6 per cent of the population and by 2011, the number had nearly doubled to 6.3 per cent.
The majority of Saskatchewan is Christian, with 72 per cent of the population identifying with a Christian denomination in 2011. The next largest religious group were those identifying with Aboriginal spirituality (about one per cent), followed by Muslims, Buddhists and Hindus (each less than one per cent). Those claiming no religious affiliation numbered 24 per cent.
Throughout the province's history, religious groups have been active in expressing their views on such varied social issues as prohibition, immigration, education and the language used in schools. Religious factors lie behind the division of the province's public schools into Protestant and Roman Catholic systems, and a particularly bitter confrontation occurred in the late 1920s when the Ku Klux Klan took the lead in inflaming the electorate over religious symbols (specifically Catholic) in the schools. The Conservative Party was perceived at the time to have Klan support, and hence some Catholic voters thereafter were thought to be supporters of the party's opponents. However, in 1982, the party, led by a Roman Catholic, won an overwhelming victory.
The earliest human inhabitants of the area that became Saskatchewan were nomadic Aboriginal peoples grouped roughly from north to south as follows: three tribes of the Athapaskan linguistic group (the Chipewyan, the Amisk and the Slavey); two groups speaking Algonquian (the Cree and the Blackfoot); and two tribes of the Siouan group (the Assiniboine and the Gros Ventres). Each of the three main language groups occupied approximately a third of the area. Those in the north depended heavily on caribou and moose as a staple food; those in the southern third (i.e., that part which is now the agricultural belt) on the buffalo. These peoples lived in small groups and did not live within fixed territorial boundaries.
Some of these Aboriginal communities — especially those close to waterways — were in contact with Europeans as early as 1690, when Henry Kelsey, an employee of the Hudson’s Bay Company, followed the Saskatchewan River west to the area that is now Prince Albert and then proceeded south into the plains.
Exploration of the Canadian prairies came as the fur trade expanded to meet European demand for beaver pelts, which were used to make hats.
The Europeans, once they had discovered the usefulness of the plains for this purpose, wasted little time in moving in. The Hudson's Bay Company was two decades old when Kelsey first saw Saskatchewan in 1690. Pierre Gaultier La Vérendrye then explored some of southeastern Saskatchewan in the late 1730s and he was followed by several more English explorers, of whom the best known is probably Peter Pond. None penetrated north of the Churchill River until 1796, when David Thompson explored the area before heading to Lake Athabasca. At that time little was known of the southern third of the province, but in 1800 Peter Fidler crossed the area using the South Saskatchewan River.
Aboriginal peoples participated in the fur trade by trapping furs as well as procuring supplies for the European traders. Others served as middlemen between the trading posts and Aboriginal groups farther to the west. Some groups such as the Cree, Ojibwa and Assiniboine moved west as the fur trade expanded to maintain their role in the trade.
Contact with Europeans brought great changes to Aboriginal culture and society. The introduction of the horse and the rifle changed the method by which Aboriginal peoples hunted buffalo and other big game upon which they were reliant. Additionally, horses, which were able to carry more than humans or dogs, allowed for a greater accumulation of wealth and more elaborate cultural institutions. Beginning in 1781, epidemics of European diseases, such as smallpox, devastated the Aboriginal population, as did the introduction of alcohol. The Métis, descendants of European men and Aboriginal women, are another product of this contact. On the Plains, the Métis formed their own culture distinct from that of their European and Aboriginal progenitors.
Not all exploration was motivated by profit. Men interested in the land and the environment entered the region a century behind the traders. The best known of the early observers were Sir John Franklin and Dr. John Richardson, between 1819 and 1827, and John Palliser in 1857–58. Palliser also led the Palliser Expedition, and around the same time Henry Hind assessed the region’s agricultural possibilities. Previously, the Northwest had been viewed as a desolate wasteland, unsuited for settlement. The reports produced by the Palliser and Hind expeditions refuted this long-held belief and helped to encourage European settlement and agricultural development in the region.
In 1871, in order to facilitate westward expansion and, hopefully, avoid the type of conflicts occurring in the United States, the Canadian government began negotiating treaties with Aboriginal peoples in the Northwest to extinguish their title to the land and establish reserves for Aboriginal settlement. Beginning with Treaty One in 1871 and culminating with Treaty Eleven in 1923, they are collectively known as the “Numbered Treaties.” Parts of Treaties Two, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight and Ten comprise present-day Saskatchewan. Aboriginal leaders signed these treaties to maintain as much of their traditional way of life as possible while adapting to the challenges they faced resulting from the encroachment by European settlers and the devastating collapse of the buffalo population. Aboriginal leaders insisted on making grants of farm implements and animals part of the treaties. Although traditionally nomadic, they sought to take up agriculture as they could no longer rely on the buffalo as their principal food source. Their efforts, however, were undermined by maladministration by the Canadian government.
In 1885, Métis in the Northwest rebelled against the Canadian government over the issue of land claims. At the same time, small groups of Aboriginals, angry at the government’s violation of their treaties, and starving after several poor harvests and the government restriction of rations, rose in rebellion. Using the nearly-completed Canadian Pacific Railway, the government was able to send troops to the Northwest and quickly put down both uprisings. In the aftermath, Louis Riel, the Métis leader, was executed. Aboriginal leaders Big Bear, Poundmaker and One Arrow were sentenced to prison, and the government implemented more restrictive measures to subjugate Aboriginal populations.
Also during this time, in 1872, Parliament passed the first Dominion Lands Act, a provision for homesteaders and an act to stimulate immigration. In 1882–83 the first railway lines crossed the area in a southern route through Regina and Moose Jaw. The prerequisites for European immigration and settlement were therefore all in place well before 1900.
The impact of their combined influence shows dramatically in the statistics. In 1885 the population of the area was 32,097, half of whom were British and 44 per cent were Aboriginal. Just over 25 years later, in 1911, the population was 492,432, half of which was still British, and the Aboriginal population had dropped to 2.4 per cent. Many of the immigrants who came during this period were eastern Europeans, especially Ukrainians, whom Minister of the Interior Clifford Sifton regarded as the ideal candidates to settle the West. The British had by then consolidated their hold on familiar political institutions; the principles of responsible government, which held the Cabinet responsible to a majority of the legislature, were settled in 1897.
Provincial status, first sought in 1900, came in 1905, and with it the relevant apparatus of parliamentary government. The province's size and shape were important; although many leading Prairie politicians favoured one large western province, the federal authorities always insisted that the western plains were too large to be made into a single constitutional entity. Depending on where one settled its northern boundary, such a province could have been the largest in Canada, a potential economic threat to the central heartland. In any event, in 1905 the federal government retained jurisdiction over crown lands in Saskatchewan.
Settlement proceeded in a generally northwesterly direction, most of the arable area being occupied by the 1930s. The pattern of settlement itself profoundly affected the nature of Saskatchewan society. Identifiable groups of immigrants, varying from English people desiring to set up a temperance colony to Doukhobors escaping persecution with the aid of Leo Tolstoy and the Society of Friends (see Quakers), established communities, which in the 1980s still reflected their origins. Time, social mobility and intermarriage have blurred the lines separating the original settlements, but at the time many parts of the province were still discernibly French and German, Ukrainian and Scandinavian, Hutterite and Mennonite.
Leading up to the First World War, there were a number of indications the province was well on its way to establishing stability. In 1909, the Saskatchewan Legislative building opened in Regina. Saskatoon began constructing the University of Saskatchewan in the same year and Prince Albert became home to the federal penitentiary. Roads, hospitals, schools, and courts were also built in this period. Agriculture dominated the economy beyond the interwar years and shaped the lives of those who settled in the province. Wheat was the most important crop grown in Saskatchewan. In the face of falling prices, farmers organized and formed the Saskatchewan Co-operative Wheat Producers Ltd. on 25 August 1923 (Saskatchewan Wheat Pool) in an effort to maintain fair prices. Throughout the 1970s, the province has endeavoured to diversify agriculture to include cattle and hogs. Towards the end of the 20th century, small family farms have been replaced by the agri-business model.
Immigration en masse into Saskatchewan had ended, at least temporarily, by the 1930s, although a high turnover in the population did not stop. The province's modern history is marked by the steady departure of people from Saskatchewan, especially in rural parts of the province. Sometimes, as in the two World Wars, thousands left over a short period to enlist or to work in war industries, and many did not return. Economically, the most significant single event of Saskatchewan's modern history was the transfer of jurisdiction over crown lands to the province in 1930. Had this transfer not taken place, the province would still have become a great agricultural producer and contributor to the Second World War effort. However, with it, the province not only had access to lucrative sources of taxation, but also new sources of power which affected its influence within Canada in the 1970s and after, giving it a formidable voice in national affairs.
The experience of the Depression created an environment that was especially conducive to the idea of a big government that would intervene to manage the economy and alleviate social problems. The CCF championed democratic socialism and made way for co-operation, public ownership of industries and universal health care in the province. The CCF also spearheaded initiatives to integrate and modernize northern parts of the province. Unfortunately, efforts to improve health care facilities, for example, only heightened unemployment and poverty. Aboriginal peoples were adversely affected by these measures.
Historically, Saskatchewan’s economy centered on the fur trade. Once Europeans established settlements, agriculture overtook hunting and trapping. Wheat, once the plains were settled, was a large factor in Canada's international dealings. Since attaining provincehood, Saskatchewan’s economy is closely linked with that of Alberta as industries and resources overlap. This relationship is especially true of wheat farming, cattle ranching and the extraction of fossil fuels. The province's economy since the drought and Depression decade of the 1930s has shown an impressive capacity for diversification in both agricultural and non-agricultural production. Saskatchewan’s standout economic strengths today are in the development and production of potash as well as agriculture. Reduced demand from India and China, however, led to significant layoffs and reduced production at Potash Corp, one of the province’s leading employers, in 2013. In recent years, the province has seen a surge in the transportation sector as well as in development and construction.
Commonly the province has had little control over the transportation of its own products, or the financing of it, and this situation did not change as wheat was supplemented by natural gas, petroleum and potash. A high percentage of the consumer goods used in Saskatchewan, on the other hand, from canned food to automobiles and farm implements, are imported. A recurring feeling among sections of the population is that the province's economy is the victim of outside forces that are not always benign.
This feeling provides one reason for the remarkable success of the Co-operative Movement in Saskatchewan, through which citizens have banded together to satisfy numerous economic needs. Co-operatives are found in virtually every segment of the retailing and distributing trades, and in many service industries. In 2012, the province had 1,251 co-operatives with 344,000 active members. Co-operative associations in Saskatchewan represent 14 per cent of the national total.
Although non-agricultural production constitutes over half of Saskatchewan's annual output, agriculture remains the largest single industry. The settled era began almost exclusively as a farm economy, with nearly 460,000 ha of wheat planted in the year of the province's creation, yielding 26 million bushels. With the exception of setbacks during the Great Depression (when drought reduced all rural activities) and the Second World War (when some overseas markets for wheat almost disappeared), wheat acreage has grown steadily throughout the province's history and now tops 5.7 million hectares annually.
Saskatchewan is incomparably the largest wheat producer in Canada and one of the largest in the world: in 2012, the province grew over 12.7 million tonnes of wheat. The province is also a leader in the production of canola, rye, oats, barley, flax, forage crops and pasturage for livestock.
The province’s livestock industry is an important element in the agricultural economy but does not compare, in terms of income, to crops. In 2012, cash receipts for crops totalled $9.2 billion in comparison to livestock, which totalled $1.67 billion.
Like all modern agricultural economies, Saskatchewan's is characterized by a decrease in the number of farms and a growth in the size of those surviving. Saskatchewan has the smallest proportion of small-to- moderate-sized farms in Canada, while those yielding annual sales of $25,000 or more number about 30,000. In 2012, total cash receipts were over $11.8 billion, placing it third behind Ontario and Alberta.
Beginning in the 1950s the development of mining in Saskatchewan was almost as spectacular, though not as conspicuous, as that of agricultural settlement half a century earlier. In 1950, the total value of all mineral production was barely $34 million, of which nearly 80 per cent was of metals, mostly copper and zinc, 15 per cent fuels, mostly coal, and the remainder was sodium sulphate. By the 1980s mining ranked second to agriculture as a contributor to the province's production.
A major part of this shift was the increase in fuel production, mainly crude petroleum. In 1950, crude petroleum accounted for 3.3 per cent of mineral production. By comparison, in 2012, Saskatchewan is the nation's second-largest oil producing province.
Saskatchewan is also the world’s second largest potash producer, with sales for the province’s potash totalling 5.9 billion in 2012. Ninety-five percent of the potash produced in Saskatchewan is for export, particularly to the US, with Brazil, Indonesia and China as emerging markets. The mining of uranium began after 1950 and by the 1980s one large mine had already been, in economic terms, worked out, but remarkably rich deposits remained elsewhere. In 2009, the value of uranium sales was $1.26 billion. The province was once the largest uranium producing-region in the world. Since 2009, Kazakhstan has overtaken Canada as the world’s top producer of uranium.
Established in 1929, Saskatchewan Power Corporation is the province’s primary electricity provider. Electricity is generated from a mix of different stations: seven hydroelectric, six natural gas, three coal-fired and two wind. The bulk of the energy provided by these stations comes from the coal-fired plants (41 per cent), followed by natural gas (32 per cent), hydro (21 per cent) and wind (five per cent). In the coming years, however, these ratios will shift as federal regulations mandate the elimination of conventional coal-fired power generation.
Forestry is not one of Saskatchewan's largest industries, although where it exists, primarily in the middle third of the province, it is of great local significance. The rapid opening of the Prairies for settlement created a demand for building materials, not just for farm buildings but also for railway ties and telegraph poles; and the closer settlement moved to the northern forest, the more local wood could be used. Pulpwood, which uses smaller growth than lumber, was cut for export as early as the 1920s, but the province's first pulp mill was not built until the 1960s with substantial assistance from the government.
Saskatchewan wood is used for softwood lumber, pulp, plywood and engineered wood products. Saskatchewan’s forests generally produce about $1 billion in forest product sales, with $800 million of that in exports. Despite the industry being relatively small, its activities are nonetheless sufficient enough that Aboriginal leaders frequently express concern over the damage caused to wildlife habitat.
Fisheries rank well below forestry as a contributor to the province's economy, ranking with wildlife trapping and fur farming. The fish caught are namely walleye, whitefish, lake trout and pike. In 2012, the value of fish landings in the province totalled $3.4 million. Much of the commercial fishing activity is in the north, while in the south, a fairly common sight is the rainbow trout dugout, a licensed artificial pond in which individual farmers raise fish for their own use or for profit.
Saskatchewan is not generally considered a manufacturing centre. For example, in 2012, manufacturing sales totalled $14 billion, as compared to $272 billion in Ontario, the province traditionally considered a manufacturing powerhouse. Most manufactured goods are exported to other parts of Canada.
Saskatchewan's industrial economy has always been affected by the relatively small provincial market. What the province produces well it produces in enormous quantities. The Saskatchewan internal market is in many ways more economically served by imports. While a number of attempts were made to establish major industries (Regina obtained an automobile assembly plant in 1928), the province was in the wrong location, and with the wrong resources, to share in the huge industrial expansion of the Second World War. Non-agricultural production in the 1980s was larger and more varied than it had ever been, but Saskatchewan is still a long way from posing a threat to central Canada as an industrial heartland.
No major Canadian bank or trust company has its head office in the province. The province's net debt in 2013 was $3.8 billion, one of the lowest in the country.
It is part of the province's traditional beliefs that banks exploit as well as serve those in debt to them; this response, together with the citizens' confidence in co-operative ventures, led to a widespread network of credit unions, in effect banks owned by their own local customers. In 2012 there were 53 credit unions, with 502,000 members.
The provincial government pioneered in its own financial enterprises when, in October 1944, the legislature passed the Saskatchewan Government Insurance Act. The Saskatchewan Government Insurance Office (SGI; 1945) handles most kinds of property casualty insurance and is particularly involved in automobile insurance, which Saskatchewan also pioneered in 1944 by implementing the Automobile Insurance Act, the first in North America.
Transportation is a challenge in Saskatchewan owing to extreme weather conditions and vast distances between cities and smaller towns. One of the chief concerns, in addition to improving everyday travel for residents, is shipping goods from producers to consumers. With the absence of navigable waters, and the sheer quantities of wheat and potash to be hauled, for example, an efficient and well-maintained system of highways and railways is of overwhelming importance. Potash can be moved directly from the mines to the railways, but grains must be carried by truck from each farm before entering the elevator for subsequent shipment by rail.
The province undertook the building of their portion of the Trans-Canada Highway during 1950–57 and completed “four-lane” highways from Regina to Lumsden, for example, in 1961. Roads in northern Saskatchewan fell under the responsibility of the Department of Natural Resources and were constructed as “resource access routes,” in the 1940s and 1950s. The provincial bus service, operated by Saskatchewan Transport Company, was created in 1946.
When all the roads in Saskatchewan are added together, the province has the longest rural road total in the country: over 190,000 km. Railways are under federal jurisdiction, but roads and highways are provincial. A major item in every provincial budget, vying for position behind health and education, is transportation. Mainline railway track in Saskatchewan accounts for 11 per cent of the total in Canada (over 3,700 km).
Historically, Aboriginal peoples in Saskatchewan employed canoes to traverse the province’s network of waterways. Today, the Hatchet Lake First Nation, under contract with the Department of Highways, offers seasonal barge service to Wolleston Lake.
Government and Politics
Structurally, the government of Saskatchewan resembles that of the other provinces. The executive consists of the lieutenant-governor and an executive council called the Cabinet, which, in the name of the Crown, exercises the real powers of government, with the aid of a public service organized into departments and crown corporations. The legislature is unicameral and its members are elected in 58 single-member constituencies. In 2011, Justice Minister Don Morgan announced that there would be three new constituencies distributed in Regina and Saskatoon for the 2015 provincial election. The support of a majority of the members of the legislature is necessary for the continued life of a particular Cabinet. The leader of the majority is the premier, and his Cabinet colleagues are ministers, each with assigned responsibilities. See Saskatchewan Lieutenant-Governors: Table; Saskatchewan Premiers: Table
The parliamentary tradition is strong, and Saskatchewan is unique among the Western provinces in that its legislature rarely supported coalition governments for prolonged periods nor has it been dominated by one party to the virtual exclusion of an Opposition. Even during the life of the lone coalition, the Co-operative government of 1929–34, the largest single party formed the opposition.
A second major tradition of government in Saskatchewan is the blurred line between public and private sectors: the government, no matter what party was in power, has not only encouraged citizens to develop co-operatives that competed with private enterprise but has not hesitated to go into business itself, as in the creation of a telephone system, a power corporation and an energy corporation.
The lively partisan traditions of Saskatchewan are reflected in its election results: in the seven general elections up to 1986, the winning party won over 50 per cent of the vote only twice. The Liberals were chosen to form the first administration in 1905 and won the next six elections handily, although always facing opposition groups with considerable support.
The Liberals' early successes produced a public service weighted with patronage appointments, an issue used against the party in 1929. The basic issue of the 1929 election, however, was the use of the schools for religious purposes — something many people were upset about. These two issues helped a loose coalition of Conservatives, Progressives and Independents defeat the government. The Co-operative government they formed became a victim of the drought and the Depression, and not one of its candidates was elected in 1934.
After another decade of Liberal rule, in 1944 the province elected North America's first socialist government by a landslide, in the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. The CCF (known later in Saskatchewan as the CCF-NDP and finally as the New Democratic Party) remained in power for 20 years. Under the leadership of Tommy Douglas, proclaimed by the CBC in 2004 as “the Greatest Canadian,” the CCF encouraged the proliferation of co-operative associations, state-managed automobile and fire insurance, and a foundation of social services. At the end of Douglas’ tenure as leader of the CCF in 1961, Saskatchewan was on its way to implementing universal healthcare. The Liberals returned to office for the years 1964–71, after which the NDP were elected for1971–82. In 1982 the Progressive Conservatives, who had all but disappeared between 1934 and the 1970s, won their first victory in their own right and were returned to power again in 1986. The NDP returned to power in 1991 under Premier Roy Romanow. His success at battling the deficit was rewarded with a second majority in 1995. Lorne Calvert was elected leader of the NDP in 2001, and assumed the premier's duties shortly thereafter.
Since 1999, the NDP has had fierce competition at the polls from a right-wing coalition called the Saskatchewan Party, created in 1997 by Liberal and Conservative MLAs. The Saskatchewan Party formed their first provincial government in 2007 by winning 38 seats and in 2011 increased their power in the legislature by capturing 49 seats. The Saskatchewan Party’s success is based on its appeal across all demographic groups and especially in rural parts of the province. Premier Brad Wall, a native of Swift Current, is credited with presenting the province with six consecutive balanced budgets and substantially reducing provincial debt. He has been called both the “most underrated politician,” by journalist Chantal Hébert, as well as named the 2011 Politician of the Year by CTV.
Historically, the province has voted for different parties namely because the parties rarely differed in what they offered, not because the electorate is fickle.
The CCF was plainly the furthest left of the parties, with the Liberals and Conservatives on the right; but the Liberals after 1964, for example, did not dismantle the health and welfare policies or the public enterprises of the preceding CCF, which had in turn built on foundations laid by the Liberals.
The province's judicial system is the usual hierarchy, with a Court of Appeal and a Court of Queen's Bench at the summit, and provincial courts (formerly magistrate's courts) below. The federal authority appoints all judges except for those of the provincial courts.
Saskatchewan has 14 members in the House of Commons and six senators. While the province has never loomed large in numbers in Parliament, but its representatives have included many notably vocal individuals. For example, Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King and John Diefenbaker, were Saskatchewan MPs for prolonged periods. One federal minister, James Gardiner, held a portfolio (agriculture) for a longer consecutive period than any other individual in Canadian history.
Governmental expenditures in Saskatchewan, as elsewhere, grew rapidly after the Second World War and in 1981 passed $2 billion for the first time. Total provincial revenue from all sources in 2012–13 was $11.3 billion. Of this, 47 per cent came from taxes in the form of individual income tax, provincial sales tax, corporate income tax, fuel tax and tobacco tax as well as others. Non-renewable resources generated 28 per cent of the provincial revenue with the majority coming from oil followed by potash production. Federal transfers comprised 14 per cent of provincial revenue, while the remaining 11 per cent was generated by other own-source revenue such as interest, sales of assets, fines and transfers from other governments. Main expenditures are public services, social services, and salaries and operating administration.
Unlike many other provinces, Saskatchewan does not have counties. Instead, local governance is carried out by eight different types of municipalities: Northern towns, northern villages, northern hamlets, villages, resort villages, towns, cities and rural municipalities. Areas of the north not administered by northern towns and hamlets receive municipal services through provincial initiatives.
The municipal governments provide the usual housekeeping facilities: streets, police, water, sewage disposal and hospitals in the urban areas; roads, help with problems of drainage and weed control in the rural. Municipal governments, often reluctantly, also collect taxes for other local spending authorities, the largest of which are school districts. The Saskatchewan Urban Municipalities Association and the Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipalities are respected political forces.
Public health policies in Saskatchewan predate the province's creation in 1905, but the province nonetheless pioneered in comprehensive extensions of health care. The hospital services plan, which became effective in 1947, provided universal hospital care insurance throughout the province: since 1947, every qualified citizen has had hospital care when needed, at public expense. The hospital plan — called the Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Act — provided part of the foundation for national, universal prepaid medical care, as well as the establishment of a medical faculty and teaching hospital at the University of Saskatchewan.
The Medical Care Insurance Act — which extended insurance from the hospital to the doctor’s office —also contributed to the adoption of a national health care plan in Canada. Called Medicare, the insurance plan began in Saskatchewan in 1962, with a federal plan — called the Medical Care Act — being passed in 1966. Tommy Douglas’ selection as “the Greatest Canadian” was largely based on his role in spearheading Medicare.
The province inherited the beginnings of a public school system, as well as the idea for a university, from its territorial days. The rapid expansion of the population during the early settlement gave teachers and schools a sense of urgency felt almost everywhere, and the upgrading of inadequately trained teachers and the replacement of makeshift premises were major preoccupations of Saskatchewan's first years. At the beginning, many of the teachers came from provinces to the east. The new province created normal schools, and in 1927 these were supplemented by a College of Education at the University of Saskatchewan. In due course the college absorbed the normal schools.
The high ratio of British to French has had important implications for provincial policies on language and education. The use of French was at one time confined to primary courses, and in 1931 French was prohibited as a medium of instruction; other languages fared less well. In the 1960s, however, the province began to take a more relaxed view towards French in the schools, and public schools teaching the regular curriculum in French began to appear. Where numbers warrant, Saskatchewan francophones may manage and control their own schools through elected francophone boards. There are also federally-funded band-administered schools on Aboriginal reserves throughout the province.
Like Ontario, Saskatchewan has two publically-funded education systems, i.e. a secular system and a “separate” system, made up of predominantly Catholic schools. The two systems offer kindergarten to grade 12. In 2012–13, there were 169,939 students in both public and separate schools.
The University of Saskatchewan was established in 1909 with a solitary faculty of arts, a teaching staff of five and 70 students. By the mid-1990s, the university had 13 colleges (faculties), and a teaching staff of 1,000. Students totalled 23,835 in 2012–13, with 1,134 full-time faculty members. In 1974 the University of Regina was created out of the Regina campus of the University of Saskatchewan. In 2012, it had 13,115 students.
In recognition of its significant Aboriginal and Métis population, Saskatchewan has developed a culturally-sensitive curriculum and unique system for delivering educational services by Aboriginal peoples to Aboriginal peoples. The First Nations University of Canada, formerly Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, is affiliated with the University of Regina and is the only fully accredited Aboriginal university in Canada. It offers a range of programs including Indigenous Studies, Literature and Linguistics, Indigenous Social Work, and Environmental and Health Sciences. In 2012, the university had 45 faculty members, the largest concentration of Aboriginal faculty in the world. In 2013, the university reported 750 registered full-time students as well as 4,000 University of Regina students taking their classes. The Gabriel Dumont Institute is the educational arm of the Métis Nations of Saskatchewan, promoting the renewal and development of Métis culture. The Institute administers programs such as the Saskatchewan Urban Native Teacher Education Program, which helps Aboriginal and Métis students become teachers and role models in communities.
The Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) is the main vehicle for the delivery of technical vocational skill training as well as adult basic education and some university credit courses in the province. In 2012–13, SIAST enrolment totalled 17,058 students at its campuses in Regina, Saskatoon, Prince Albert and Moose Jaw.
A system of seven regional colleges, with offices throughout the province, provides a wide range of adult and post-secondary courses, career counselling and other student services to residents of rural and northern Saskatchewan. In 2011, the Regional College Review reported that the college system offers education to over 23,000 learners.
The basic instrument of educational policy is the Department of Education. The department is responsible for developing legislation and policy affecting all levels of education and provides financial support for most public education programs in Saskatchewan.
Much of the artistic energy of Aboriginal peoples went into artifacts connected with the hunt, and the making of decorated leather clothing and moccasins has survived. There are petroglyphs on outcrops at Roche Percée in the southeast. Traditional Aboriginal art forms such as beading and hide-work flourish alongside the work of contemporary artists like Cree painter Allen Sapp and Métis installation artist Edward Poitras. World-renowned singer-song writer Buffy Sainte-Marie was born on the Piapot First Nations Reserve in Qu’Appelle Valley.
The Europeans brought their own crafts with them, and the significance of handicrafts in Saskatchewan's development is reflected in the seriousness with which they are still taken. One of Tommy Douglas’ lasting legacies was the creation of the Saskatchewan Arts Board in 1948. The arts board, modelled after the British organization, is a publicly-funded body that encourages and funds a wide variety of artistic endeavours. Several arts organizations were established in the late 1970s, including the Saskatchewan Council of Cultural Organizations, created to distribute lottery funds collected by the province, and the Regina Arts Commission, which undertakes similar activities to the provincial arts board at the municipal level.
Even before the creation of the Saskatchewan Arts Board, several artists made their mark, including Ernest Linder, Augustus Kenderdine and James Henderson, and the symphonies in Regina and Saskatoon were well established.
Saskatchewan boasts of a number of festivals on its social calendar, including the Festival of Words (Moosejaw), the Saskatoon Fringe Festival (renamed the PotashCorp Fringe Theatre Festival), the Regina Folk Festival and the Midsummer Arts Festival (Fort Qu’Appelle). Saskatchewan is also known for its Canadian Football League team the Roughriders (also known as the “winningest team in the West”) and its die-hard football fans. Support for this team in a relatively small market is so strong that the Roughriders rank third in merchandise sales behind only the Toronto Maple Leafs and Montréal Canadiens.
In 2004, Tisdale-native Brent Butt’s comedy Corner Gas premiered depicting the lives of eccentric residents in the fictional town of Dog River. The show centered on the town’s gas station, the only one for 60 km in each direction, and the adjacent diner. The show ran for six seasons, 107 episodes and won numerous Canadian television awards. In 2009, Premier Brad Wall honoured the show by proclaiming April 13 “Corner Gas Day.” The show brought recognition to Rouleau, located roughly 65 km southwest of Regina, which served as the set for all outdoor scenes.
Regina's Globe Theatre (1966) was Saskatchewan's first professional theatre. It was followed by Saskatoon's 25th Street Theatre (1972), which focuses on Aboriginal works. 25th Street Theatre also hosts the international fringe festival, which attracts over 50,000 people each summer. Another Saskatchewan professional theatre, Persephone (1974), produces a mixture of Canadian and international works. “Shakespeare on the Saskatchewan” is a popular summer tourist attraction on the banks of the South Saskatchewan River.
Regina's MacKenzie Art Gallery, housed in the T.C. Douglas Building, began as a part of the University of Regina. Saskatoon's Mendel Art Gallery, Prince Albert's Little Gallery and the Estevan National Exhibition Centre are a few of the other major art galleries. The major galleries, along with dozens of commercial ones scattered across the province, show the work of ceramists who used the province's rich deposits of clays.
Many Saskatchewan writers have been recognized with national and international awards. Maria Campbell, a Métis woman and author of the compelling memoir Half-breed (1973), is a distinguished voice for her community. Guy Vanderhaeghe, Patrick Land and Robert Calder are some who have been awarded the Governor General's Award for Literature. The Saskatchewan Writer's Guild is one of Canada’s first organizations of its kind.
Saskatchewan is home to four daily newspapers, the Leader-Post (Regina), the Moose Jaw Times-Herald, the Prince Albert Daily Herald and the StarPhoenix (Saskatoon). Although there are no major national publishing firms headquartered in Saskatchewan, the province has smaller firms including Thistledown Press, Purich Publishing and the Gabriel Dumont Institute, which publish on subjects of local interest including Métis and Aboriginal content. Likewise, there are several magazines published in Saskatchewan which focus on local topics such as Saskbusiness, Saskatchewan History Magazine and Prairies North. The publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation maintains stations in Saskatoon and Regina, while private networks CTV and Global both maintain stations in Regina and Saskatoon.
The province is dotted with national and provincial historic sites, the most northerly of them marking early missions, the rest variously celebrating fur posts, the first newspaper, Mounted Police depots, colonies of settlers, old trails, the founding of a grain growers' organization or a steamship landing. Wanuskewin Heritage Park, for example, is an important archaeological site that tells the story of the nomadic indigenous peoples of the Northern Plains who lived and hunted in the Opimihaw Creek region. Most recently, the Government of Saskatchewan granted Provincial Heritage Property designations to the Fish Lake Métis Settlement, an independent Métis community occupied between 1945 and 1965, and the Moose Mountain Chalet and Cabins, which played a role in the creation of the provincial parks organization.
John H. Archer, Saskatchewan: A History (1980); D.H. Bocking, ed., Pages from the Past: Essays on Saskatchewan History (1970); G. Friesen, Prairie Road (1984); Edward McCourt, Saskatchewan (1968); J. Howard Richards and K.I. Fung, Atlas of Saskatchewan (1969).