New Brunswick is one of 3 provinces collectively known as the "Maritimes." Joined to Nova Scotia by the narrow Chignecto Isthmus and separated from Prince Edward Island by the Northumberland Strait, New Brunswick forms the land bridge linking this region to continental North America.
New Brunswick is one of 3 provinces collectively known as the "Maritimes." Joined to Nova Scotia by the narrow Chignecto Isthmus and separated from Prince Edward Island by the Northumberland Strait, New Brunswick forms the land bridge linking this region to continental North America. It is bounded in the north by Québec and in the west by the US (Maine), and its history has often been influenced by the activities of these powerful neighbours. Successively part of an Algonquian cultural area, of French Acadia and of British Nova Scotia, it achieved separate colonial status only after the arrival of Loyalist refugees from the American Revolution.
In 1784 the British divided Nova Scotia at the Chignecto Isthmus, naming the west and north portion New Brunswick after the German duchy of Brunswick-Lunenburg, which was also ruled at the time by King George III of England. New Brunswick was one of the 4 original provinces, its entry being essential to Confederation. Its influence declined sharply with the rise of the West and the central cities; yet it has survived a series of economic crises to develop progressive communities with enviable lifestyles.
The return of Acadians expelled during the Seven Years' War (1756-63) and the immigration of francophones from Québec created tensions between the 2 language groups. The trend in recent years has been toward tolerance and an increasing acceptance of duality in public institutions. New Brunswick is now the only officially bilingual province in Canada.
Land and Resources
The area of New Brunswick is 73 440 km2. The principal regional divisions are the watershed of the Bay of Fundy, centering on the Saint John River valley, and the north and east shores. The Saint John River offered early access to much of the best farmland and timber resources of the province. Occupied by the descendants of Loyalists and other immigrants from Great Britain and the US, the valley has been inhabited mainly by Protestants who, until the 1960s, tended to dominate the government and the educational and commercial institutions of the province.
The residents of north and east shores, living in coastal fishing villages and interior lumbering settlements along the rivers, have been separated physically from the valley communities by uplands and belts of forest, and separated culturally by their predominantly French language and Catholic religion.
The 2 major divisions include several subregions. In the northwest the French-speaking population of Madawaska County, closer to Québec and conscious of common interests with neighbouring Americans, talk of a "republic of Madawaska." Residents of Carleton and Victoria counties on the upper Saint John have a sense of community based on their virtual monopoly of the potato industry and strengthened by their strong commitment to evangelical religions.
In the southwest at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy lies Charlotte County, distinguished in part by its fisheries, including a unique sardine fishery, and by strong tourist and other ties with the US.
There is another division at the head of Fundy, where Albert and Westmorland counties encompass an anglophone population conscious of its central location in a Maritime region, while the Acadian community of Westmorland and Kent counties aspires to the leadership of the French in the province.
An anomaly in the regional division is the Miramichi section of Northumberland County, which as a traditionally English-speaking mixed Catholic and Protestant area bisects the Acadian community of the northern and eastern shores. In the north, Gloucester and to a lesser degree Restigouche counties form a heartland of Acadian culture.
New Brunswick's initial European settlers were Acadians (see History of Acadia) who, with the use of dikes, farmed the marshlands of the Chignecto Isthmus and part of the northern shore of the Bay of Fundy. Following their expulsion (1755 onwards), their lands were taken by Protestant settlers from New England (see Planters), Pennsylvania and Yorkshire, England. When the Acadians tried to return after the Peace of Paris in 1763, some were granted land in the Memramcook area and some found employment in fishing stations from the Gaspé to Cape Breton Island.
When the Loyalists arrived, most of the Acadians on the lower Saint John pushed up the river to Sainte-Anne-de-Madawaska. The Loyalist exiles, approximately 14 000 in number, penetrated the interior largely by way of the Saint John River. Essentially a cross-section of society in the Thirteen Colonies, they included very few college graduates and Anglican clergy and close to 1000 blacks, most of them slaves of wealthy Loyalists, but some, perhaps a third, Loyalists in their own right. About 200 blacks later left for Sierra Leone and the remainder were joined by refugee blacks from the War of 1812.
Although the Loyalists overwhelmed the perhaps 3000 residents of New Brunswick on their arrival, they too were diluted in the first half of the 19th century by immigrant waves of Scots and Irish, who found employment in a burgeoning lumber industry. Forced to compete with cheap immigrant labour, older settlers frequently left. In the depression of the traditional timber and shipbuilding economy in the 1880s, it was the turn of the Irish and Scots to seek employment elsewhere.
The growth of cities outside the region and the collapse of the new industrial economy in the 1920s continued to drain the population of most of its natural increase. Acadians, who were more resistant to economic pressures to leave, and were bolstered by immigration from Québec, consolidated their hold on the northern counties as railways opened new lands for colonization.
The trend to urbanization changed New Brunswick from more than two-thirds rural before 1941 to predominantly urban by 1971. Then came a reversal as the officially designated urban population dropped from 53.3% in 1976 to 47.7% in 1991, owing to a resumption of migration from the region as well as a residential move to the suburbs, which had been made attractive by improved services, cheaper land and lower taxes. In 2001 the population was 729 498, 50.4% of which was urban.
Since the early 19th century, timber has dominated the New Brunswick economy. The province, like the Maritime region as a whole, underwent severe economic dislocation in the latter half of the 19th century as a declining shipbuilding industry, stagnant timber markets and increased tariffs struck hard at the outports. New railways and the rise of manufacturing towns failed to compensate for losses in the older industries.
The 1920s saw a decline of the industrial towns, as their industries were closed down after takeovers by central Canadian competitors or were adversely affected by national policies and hindered from competing in national markets.
By the 1930s pulp and paper mills had surpassed lumber in importance and their rise encouraged the development of hydroelectricity. Nevertheless, farm and fishing activity declined and emigration rates remained high in succeeding decades. Government campaigns for economic development in the 1960s and early 1970s, although not always successful, have seen the expansion of forest industries, the advent of a new and important mining industry, modernization of fisheries and farming, increased manufacturing based largely on local resources and the cultivation of tourism.
Government and Politics
New Brunswick's titular head of state is the lieutenant-governor. Appointed by the federal government and officially representing the Queen, his duties are largely ceremonial. Power resides with the premier, the leader of the party or coalition having a majority of support in the 58-seat elected legislative assembly. See Lieutenant-Governors of New Brunswick; Premiers of New Brunswick.
The premier presides over a cabinet, each member of which normally heads a provincial department or, in one case, a Crown corporation, the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission. The assembly, elected for no more than a 5-year mandate, is ordinarily sovereign within its spheres of responsibility. These spheres were originally outlined in the BNA Act (Constitution Act, 1867), and have been subject to subsequent amendment and judicial interpretation; the province is also subject to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Women achieved the provincial vote in 1919, but were not entitled to run for provincial office until 1934.
The courts of New Brunswick have been in a period of transition. The basic structure was a Supreme Court (divided between Appeals and Queen's Bench), county courts, and courts presided over by provincial magistrates. Under the BNA Act, the first 2 levels were appointed and paid for by the federal government; the third by the provinces who were responsible for the "administration" of justice. In 1979, with federal cooperation, the county or district courts were amalgamated with courts of Queen's Bench. Recently, through a family division of the Queen's Bench, New Brunswick has been experimenting with an integrated family and juvenile court system. Under the Official Languages Act, French and English were guaranteed judicial services in their own languages. Since 1967 an ombudsman has investigated citizens' complaints against public agencies and officials.
The educational institutions of Loyalist New Brunswick began with a strong Anglican bias which stimulated the proliferation of other denominational schools and colleges. The Common Schools Act of 1871, which established free public schools, virtually excluded the Catholics. A later compromise permitted teaching by members of religious orders and religious instruction after school hours. Education, however, remained a flash point of tension among religious and language groups in the province.
Bliss Carman, Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, A.G. Bailey, Desmond Pacey, W.S. MacNutt, Alden Nowlan and Antonine Maillet are a few of the New Brunswick literary and historical figures of international repute. Prominent artists have included John Hammond, Miller Brittain, Alex Colville, Jack Humphrey and Lawren P. Harris. An early interest in science and its practical application was evident in pioneering programs in engineering and forestry at the University of New Brunswick and in the work of the Natural History Society of Saint John. That this tradition continues is indicated by recent reports of breakthroughs in "bionic" artificial limbs and in natural methods of insect control.
Fredericton in the 1870s and Saint John by the turn of the century seemed to produce environments particularly suited to creative endeavour. From the 1920s private patrons such as J.C. Webster of Shediac and Lord Beaverbrook (formerly Max Aitken of Newcastle) helped develop institutional bases for creativity and for popular education through museums, art galleries, playhouses and universities.
The first settlers of New Brunswick were the Micmac, whose communities spread from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island to the south coast of the Gaspé Peninsula, the Maliseet along the Saint John River valley and Passamaquoddy Bay along the St Croix River. From the early 16th century, they had developed contacts with the Europeans and established a trade which made them dependent on European technologies and victims of European diseases. The Micmac had long followed a pattern of seasonal migration from hunting grounds in the wooded uplands in winter to gatherings on the shore in summer for shellfishing and social congress.
New Brunswick's rock foundation was largely formed in the Paleozoic era (544-250 million years ago). It was part of a geological formation extending from the southeastern US to Newfoundland. Much of the rock in northern and western New Brunswick was created through ocean deposits of the Ordovician period (510-441 million years ago). These rocks were folded, intruded with granites, and overlain with lavas which reflected sporadic volcanic activity throughout the Paleozoic era. They contain the zinc-lead-copper deposits of the Bathurst to Newcastle area.
Folding, faulted movements and volcanic activity reached a climax over 350 million years ago in what has been called the Acadian Orogeny. Much of the base of the central and eastern parts of the province originated in the later Carboniferous period (ending 300 million years ago), with the rocks formed in rivers, swamps and shallow basins. These included red, green and grey sandstones, some of which are coal-bearing, and conglomerates and isolated deposits of limestone, gypsum, salt and oil-bearing shales.
New Brunswick topography is characterized by northern uplands rising to 820 m and mountainous in appearance, gently rolling hills in the centre and east, sharp hills on the southern coast sloping down to tidal marshes and a lowland plain in the southeast.
The soils tend to be thin and acidic over the uplands, deeper but frequently poorly drained and acidic in the centre and west, and rocky in portions of the south. The best soils for agriculture tend to lie in intervale lands along the rivers. The upper Saint John is flanked by low plateaus of well-drained sandy loam with good lime content - excellent for growing potatoes. The finely textured soils of the Fundy lowlands are also suitable for agriculture.
Whatever their agricultural deficiencies, New Brunswick soils do grow trees. Only 5% of the province is farmland; most of the remainder of the province, some 83%, is under forest cover. Almost all of the forest cover is considered suitable for forestry; of this, 45% is softwood, 27% is hardwood and the remaining 28% is mixed.
Spruce and fir are the leading softwoods, followed in importance by cedar and white pine. Jack pine, red pine, hemlock and larch are also present. The hardwoods are led by red and sugar maples, poplar, white and yellow birch and beech in that order, with occasional ash, elm, hop hornbeam and red oak.
No part of New Brunswick is more than 180 km from the ocean, the principal means of early transportation. An extensive river system brought access well into the interior of the province, permitting early development of the timber trade and dictating patterns of settlement. The largest cities are located on the rivers, as are most of the towns and villages. Lakes are common in the south, with the largest, Grand Lake, more than 30 km in length.
New Brunswick's climate tends to be continental, though tempered by proximity to the ocean. It is harshest in the northwest, where more than one-third of precipitation comes as snow, and temperatures are several degrees colder than the central interior.
Coastal communities are several degrees warmer in winter and slightly cooler in summer, with annual snowfalls of only 15% to 20% of precipitation. The average frost-free period varies from about 100 days in the northwest to 125 along the Fundy coast.
Second in importance are mineral deposits, which include the base metals near Bathurst in the north, potash deposits near Sussex in the south, significant coal reserves in the area of Grand Lake, oil shales in Westmorland County and recent gold discoveries in the south-central part of the province.
Third comes agriculture, with substantial potato production on the northern Saint John, and dairy and mixed farming largely in the river valleys.
Fisheries rank fourth, with lobster, crab and herring taken from the Bay of Fundy, Northumberland Strait and eastern shore fisheries.
Both agriculture and fisheries support a substantial food-processing industry. The rivers, especially the Saint John in utilities at Mactaquac, Beechwood and Grand Falls, have yielded significant portions of the province's energy needs. In the initial stages of development is the energy potential of the Bay of Fundy tides, which rise from 4.6 m at the entrance to over 16 m at the head of the bay.
Fish and game offer a recreational resource to resident and visiting sport hunters. Trout are caught throughout the province; bass and pickerel are available in southern lakes. In 1994, 36 246 bright (coming from the ocean to spawn) salmon were angled by 35 529 anglers. Because of conservation measures larger salmon were returned, for a total of 17 500 retained. Over 89 300 licensed hunters reported a white-tail deer kill of 10 216. Bear, rabbit, ducks, geese and ruffed grouse are also hunted. A limited kill of moose is permitted. Winter angling has been developed in 135 lakes and ponds. In 1994, 1797 licensed trappers took furs (muskrat, beaver, raccoon, marten, fox, mink, coyote, bobcat, fisher and otter) valued at approximately $89 000.
The forests are the focal point of conservation efforts in the province. Forest management has evolved considerably since the province first gained control over its crown lands in 1837. It is now considered to have one of the best systems in Canada. The trees were first considered a commodity with controlled harvests. Forestry practices in the mid-1960s changed to the cultivation of the forests. Forest management finally evolved to an integrated and sustainable approach where other factors such as recreation and wildlife preservation are also considered.
The spruce budworm, a moth whose larvae in summer months devour the needles of spruce and fir, did serious damage to province forests in the 1920s; the last epidemic was in the mid-1980s. A control program is put into place when population levels threaten the forest.
In the 1970s salmon angling improved markedly with the federal ban on commercial salmon fishing. The war continues against poaching, with the arming of provincial wardens, the tagging of legally caught salmon, and jail sentences and vehicle confiscation for night hunters.
Attempts to protect fish and game and to assert an overriding provincial jurisdiction have brought wardens into conflict with First Nations trying to defend traditional treaty and aboriginal fishing and hunting rights.
The provincial park system is currently being restructured, with some parks being transferred to municipal governments or the private sector. The largest park remaining in the system is Mount Carleton Provincial Park.
New Brunswick's chief metropolitan area is Saint John, a leading centre of British North America in the mid-19th century, the city owed its importance to the timber trade (made accessible by its river) and to its ice-free port, which supplied the estuary and dominated shipping and shipbuilding on the Bay of Fundy. Saint John's metropolitan pretensions were flawed by its failure to secure the provincial capital or the university and undermined by New Brunswick's entry into a nation whose interests were continental rather than maritime. Saint John's current urban status is largely industrial, based on an oil refinery, pulp and paper mills, a nuclear power plant, dry dock facilities and a major container port.
Second in importance as a metropolitan region is Moncton, which has long owed its importance to transportation and distribution facilities (headquarters of the Atlantic division of CN and a trucking centre). It is also the traditional headquarters for the Acadian media and financial institutions and in 1963 became the site of the provincial francophone university, Université de Moncton.
Ranking third as a metropolitan centre, Fredericton gained its importance from Saint John's deficiencies - the provincial government and university. When the civil service and universities mushroomed in the 1960s and early 1970s, so did Fredericton. A neighbouring town, Oromocto, the headquarters for CFB Gagetown, reflects in its growth and decline the shifting status of the Canadian Armed Forces. Bathurst, Edmundston and Campbellton emerged as largely single-industry towns when New Brunswick made the transition from sawlogs to pulp and paper manufacture. With base-metal mining, a zinc reduction mill, and with an ice-free port at nearby Belledune, Bathurst became one of the industrial leaders of the north.
By occupation New Brunswick's labour force (2004) consists of a few main groups: manufacturing, health care and social services and trade. The service sector accounts for about three-quarters of employment.
New Brunswick's potential labour force was 607 400 in 2004. The participation rate of 63.9% was less than the national average. Participation rates were highest, approaching national levels, in the Moncton-Richibucto area and in the Fredericton-Oromocto region, and lowest (just under 60%) in the Campbellton-Miramichi region. Participation rates correlated with difficulty in entering the labour force.
Unemployment is highest in the Campbellton-Miramichi region. From 1981 to 1986 New Brunswick's unemployment rate, despite a 5% growth in jobs over that period, averaged 14%, nearly 5% above the national level. Throughout the 1990s employment increased slightly or decreased and the unemployment rate averaged 12%. A turnaround in the economy began in 1998, and by 2004 the unemployment rate had decreased to 9.8% (2.6% higher than the national average). Traditionally, young New Brunswickers have emigrated to find employment. Not since Confederation has the province held its entire natural population increase and the 1960s recorded a net loss of 59% "going down the road."
Emigration declined in the 1970s as the first half of the decade saw New Brunswickers return, though the second half saw a resumption of the exodus when Alberta replaced Toronto as a principal attraction. This trend continued until 1983, when the Alberta economy weakened and New Brunswickers again returned home. Ontario's strong economic showing in 1985 and 1986 again served to lure New Brunswickers away from their home province. New Brunswickers are still leaving to find work elsewhere. In 2004, Ontario continued to be the province with the largest number of migrants from New Brunswick, followed by Québec and Alberta.
Of the total 2001 population, nearly two-thirds gave their mother tongue as English and one-third as French. Of the remaining 2.5%, most people cited that they were either bilingual (French and English) or had German and Aboriginal languages (Mi'kmaq and Maliseet) as their mother tongues. Provincial language legislation is intended to provide equality between the 2 official languages.
Institutional backing for the language legislation is provided by 2 parallel educational systems, including a French university with its own law school and other professional schools, and by the hiring of specially trained court interpreters, the creation of unilingual French schools wherever the lure of playground English seemed too strong, and the construction of French cultural centres in Fredericton, Saint John and Newcastle.
The population of French origin grew dramatically after Confederation; from 44 907 or 15.7% in 1871 to 24.2% in 1901 and 33.6% in 1931. By the latter decade, the figures for those of French origin and those giving French as their mother tongue (32.7%) had begun to diverge, suggesting a degree of assimilation. The gap had widened by 1961, when 38.8% gave French as their ethnic origin compared with 35.21% as their mother tongue.
In 1971, following a period of declining birth rates, figures for ethnic origin dropped to 37% and for mother tongue to 34%. By the 2001 census there was stronger evidence that some assimilation had occurred with more people having reported French as a mother tongue (32.9%) than those who claimed to have some French (or Acadian) ethnicity (29.2%).
Other ethnic groups in 1871 included 29.3% English, 35.2% Irish and 14.3% Scots. These were highly represented in the emigration patterns of the depression of the 1880s and in subsequent rural depopulation. By 1971 only 57.6% of New Brunswickers gave their ethnic origin as British. In 2001, the number who claimed some British ancestry (42%) outnumbered those who claimed some French ancestry (29.2%). However, the largest reported ethnic group was Canadian at 57.8%.
Those who claimed some Aboriginal ethnicity represented 4% of the population. Many of the province's Micmac and Maliseet live on 15 reserves. The Maliseet have 6 along the Saint John River; the Micmac have 2 along the Miramichi River, 1 at the mouth of the Petitcodiac River and 6 along the eastern coast. The province, to date, has refused to recognize the land claims of the Union of New Brunswick Indians.
In 2001, 53.6% of New Brunswickers professed adherence to the Roman Catholic Church. Many of these were of French origin inhabiting the northern and eastern shores. Of the leading Protestant denominations, Baptists accounted for 11.2%; United, 9.6%; Anglican, 8.1%; and Pentecostal, 2.8%.
The Anglicans were concentrated in the lower Saint John River valley. Baptists and Pentecostals were strong in the so-called Bible belt from Victoria and Carleton East to Albert and Westmorland. The United Church, bearing both Methodist and Presbyterian traditions, was scattered throughout the English-speaking sections. Other religious groups included Presbyterians, Wesleyan, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Muslim and Salvation Army, with 8% of the population listed as having no religious affiliation.
The vicissitudes of agriculture in New Brunswick, as elsewhere in Canada, reflect a relative decline in the value of agricultural products and the abandonment of near-subsistence farming by rural people drawn to the attractions of a consumer economy. Although total production remained stationary, farm holdings declined from 31 899 in the 1940s to about 3800 in 1999. Improved land has also decreased, as has direct agricultural employment. Meanwhile, the agricultural processing industry has seen growth, employing 5700 people.
Potatoes, especially seed potatoes, are the province's chief agricultural export and account for 16% of the national total. Production is concentrated along the upper Saint John River valley, with Carleton and Victoria counties accounting for approximately 80% of the crop and Madawaska another 15%.
Dairy production is most important in Kings, Westmorland and York counties, where farmers supply the 3 major cities. Potatoes and dairy products together account for 41% of the province's farm income, and beef, poultry and hogs make up another 30%.
Producers are organized under a dozen boards that market milk, turkeys, eggs, hogs, cream, chickens, apples, some forest products and bedding plants.
The nongoods-producing industries of New Brunswick account for most of the province's GDP and wages and salaries. The leading sectors in 2000 were agriculture ($370 million), fishing ($680 million in export value), mining ($900 million), forestry ($1.5 billion) and manufacturing ($8.8 billion).
The tourism industry in New Brunswick accounts for over 21 000 "person years" of employment. In 2000 over 1.4 million tourists created revenues of $920 million, and were drawn to such attractions as Saint John's reversing falls, the potted-plant-shaped rocks on Albert County's Fundy coast (see The Rocks Provincial Park), the tidal bore of the Bay of Fundy, rugged forest and coastal scenery and highly successful recreations of historical communities: a Loyalist settlement, Kings Landing, near Fredericton, and the Acadian Historical Village at Caraquet. There are also more than 60 museums, restored fortifications and other sites of historic interest around the province, including a new archaeological site at Mud Lake Stream.
Two major national parks, Fundy near Alma and Kouchibouguac near Richibucto, are complemented by 21 provincial parks. Attendance at the provincial parks approaches 2.5 million visits each year. The parks encourage tourists to pause in their tours of the Maritime region and they enhance the quality of life for local residents.
Manufacturing industries are largely based on the processing of primary products produced locally. One-third of their net value of production is related to the forest industry. Food and beverage processing, notably the McCain enterprises at Florenceville and Grand Falls, ranks second in gross value of factory shipments. The Irving oil refinery in Saint John, Brunswick Mining and Smelting in Bathurst and the Saint John Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co Ltd are the other large producers.
A $3 billion contract for the building of patrol frigates for the Canadian navy was awarded to a Saint John firm in 1983, and in late 1987 the federal government announced that all 6 of a batch of navy patrol frigates were to be built in Saint John, for a total injection of $814 million. Significant too are chemical products, the processing of nonmetallic minerals, metal fabricating and printing and publishing. Altogether manufacturing employs over 39 000.
The construction industry employs over 19 000 people and accounted for $845.2 million. For most of the decade of the 1980s, the nuclear plant at Point Lepreau was the largest project. Other major construction activity includes the modernization of pulp and paper plants, continued potash developments near Sussex, the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission's Chatham Generating Station and shipyard expansion at the port of Saint John.
Mining was traditionally of scant importance in New Brunswick. The gypsum, granite and grindstones included among 19th-century exports were largely of local significance. Although coal led to a rapid development of the Grand Lake region, especially with the arrival of the railway in 1903, that area never yielded enough to make the province self-sufficient. With coal's loss of status to oil and hydroelectricity, coal mining had come to a virtual halt by the mid-1960s.
The energy crises of the early and mid-1970s led to coal's recovery through strip-mining, but by then coal was upstaged by mineral developments in the northeast. The discoveries of extensive base metal reserves in the Bathurst-Miramichi region in the 1950s have raised the mining industry to a position of major importance. By 2001 the value of New Brunswick's output was $789 million. The province contributes a significant portion of the nation's zinc, silver, lead, copper and bismuth. It is also one of Canada's major peat-producing provinces.
The growth of the New Brunswick mining industry continues. There are 2 major base metal mines, 2 major potash mines, a primary antimony producer, as well as a large number of aggregate and peat operations, in total employing about 3500 people.
The forest, which now covers over 80% of the province, has traditionally dominated the New Brunswick economy. Accessible rivers and a British preferential tariff led to the rapid development of the timber industry early in the 19th century as the white pine was slashed for British marine and domestic needs. Closely integrated with the timber trade was a widely diffused shipbuilding industry which both absorbed forest products and facilitated their access to markets.
In the mid-19th century, forest products accounted for more than 80% of the province's exports. The timber trade had declined by the end of the century and the province lost markets from a shrinking West Indian economy, new American tariffs and fresh competition from west coast timber. These problems were only partially alleviated in the rise by the late 1920s of a vigorous pulp and paper industry.
Today the forestry industry accounts for over 16 000 jobs, 28.1% of provincial exports and over one-quarter of goods produced. Pulp consumed 50% of the timber harvested, with the remainder going for lumber and similar products. Lumber mills tend to be small and they contribute 15% of production.
Pulp mills demanding large capital outlays and a large work force have been major factors in the urban development of the province. Three pulp mills, controlled by the Irving Group interests at or near Saint John, produce sulphate pulp, newsprint, tissue and materials for corrugated cardboard cartons. Mills at Newcastle and South Nelson produce sulphate pulp and pulp and paper respectively. Consolidated Bathurst's mill at Bathurst produces sulphate pulp and corrugated medium. The New Brunswick International Paper Company operates a newsprint mill at Dalhousie, and Fraser's Incorporated, a member of the Noranda group, has plants near Campbellton and Edmundston. Others include a hardwood pulp mill at Nackawic and a paper bag company at Barker's Point.
Of the 6 million ha of productive forestland, half is privately owned. The remaining 48% owned by the Crown has traditionally been leased to the larger firms. Woodland held in small parcels has supplied an important source of income for farmers and fishermen. The forest industry has also been the inspiration for a forest management school at Fredericton, a forestry faculty at the University of New Brunswick and for federal and provincial research laboratories in the province. The recognition of the potential limits of resources for which many are competing has led governments to abandon the leasing of crown lands in favour of long-term guarantees of timber to major producers.
The fisheries of New Brunswick account for about one-fifth of the production of the Canadian East Coast fisheries. In decline until the 1960s, the industry was revived by a modernization of methods and vessels. Additional enthusiasm was generated by expectations of a 200 mile (370 km) limit, finally asserted in 1977. Recent years have seen a decline in volume associated with a general reduction of fish stocks. The main fishing areas are the Gulf of St Lawrence, Northumberland Strait and the Bay of Fundy. An aquaculture program begun in 1979 now produces nearly $750 million worth of processed fish. In 2000 the landed value of the catch was over $176 million by over 7000 fishermen operating almost 2700 vessels. In processed value lobster leads the way, followed by crab, herring and scallop. The reliance on the inshore shellfish and crustacean fishery has limited the negative impact of the collapse of the Atlantic groundfish fishing on the industry in New Brunswick.
Exports accounted for almost half of the production, with nearly two-thirds going to the US. Exports to Japan have increased significantly. France is also an important importer of New Brunswick fish. The fish-processing industry employs over 10 000 workers in 144 plants in the province.
Salmon farming started in southwestern New Brunswick in 1979, with a small harvest valued at $45 000. Since then it has grown to being worth over $190 million.
Most financial institutions such as banks and trust and insurance companies are local branches of central Canadian firms. Among the few exceptions are local credit unions and the Compagnie assomption mutuelle d'assurance-vie, largely an Acadian institution with its headquarters at Moncton.
Far from central markets, New Brunswickers have traditionally shown great concern about transportation and its link to economic development. They have protested disproportionately high railway freight-rate increases, loss of regional autonomy in the federally owned Intercolonial Railway and a failure to channel Canada's winter trade through Canadian ports. In 1927 their region won a partial victory in the Maritime Freight Rates Act, which provided for statutory reductions in freight rates. In that year they created the Maritime Freight Rates Commission (now the Atlantic Provinces Transportation Commission) at Moncton as a body to coordinate regional transportation interests for shippers and manufacturers and to assist in the economic growth of the regions.
In 1969 the Federal/Provincial Committee on Atlantic Region Transportation was created to administer transportation subsidies in support of industrial development. By then transportation had become much more complex as highway trucking surpassed the railways in the carriage of freight. Airplanes and buses carried the bulk of public passengers. The advent of containerized traffic, for which the ice-free facilities of the port of Saint John were particularly well suited, encouraged a renewed struggle for enhanced status as a national port.
Currently, New Brunswick has 2 major railway systems. The New Brunswick Southern Railway took over most of CP Rail's lines in the province when CP Rail pulled out in 1994. New Brunswick Southern Railway is a short line whose eastern terminus is Saint John. The second major railway system is CN, whose regional headquarters is Moncton and main terminus is Halifax. Passenger service operated on one line by the crown corporation Via Rail has been reduced to a train a day from Halifax, NS, through Moncton north to Campbellton and then on to central Canada.
There are 7 airports in the province with scheduled air passenger service. Moncton, Saint John and Fredericton have major airports while Chatham, Charlo, Bathurst and Saint-Léonard have smaller regional airports. Other airports, used primarily for general aviation purposes, are St Stephen, Grand Manan Island, Pokemouche and Edmundston.
New Brunswick is served by major Canadian carriers to central Canada and the US. There are also a number of landing strips maintained for forest protection or private use.
SMT, an Irving-owned firm, provides intercity bus service within the province, connecting with Acadian Lines at Amherst, NS, Voyageur at Rivière-du-Loup, Qué, and Concord Trailways at Bangor, Maine. There are also a number of smaller scheduled passenger and charter bus companies operating throughout the province. Municipally owned urban transit has been maintained in Saint John, Moncton and Fredericton.
Saint John is the major port, with year-round service for containerized and bulk traffic. Its busy season has traditionally been the winter, when the St Lawrence River is frozen over. It is served by 9 container shipping lines with access to ports in over 100 countries. Conventional steamship services are provided monthly and bimonthly by 22 lines to most regions of the world. Nine other ports dot the New Brunswick shoreline, of which Newcastle is an outlet for fish and timber exports, and Belledune the major outlet for the base metal industry.
New Brunswick was better off than its Maritime and New England neighbours at the end of the cheap oil era signalled by the OPEC cartel and the shortages of 1973-74 and 1979-80. The publicly owned New Brunswick Electric Power Commission (1920) had built, with federal assistance, a major dam on the Saint John River near Fredericton which had more than doubled the province's electrical capacity from that source.
In 1970 the New Brunswick government had already committed the province to nuclear energy through the construction of a Candu reactor at Point Lepreau. By 1985 the proliferation of electrical generation capacity combined with a federal program to convert homes from oil to electrical heating resulted in a significant decline in the demand for oil and natural gas. Electricity is now the primary source of energy in the province.
Most electricity generated in the province is from nuclear and steam plants. The remaining 20% is produced by hydroelectric plants. The public utility New Brunswick Electric Power Commission maintains major oil-fired thermal units at Coleson Cove and Courtney Bay, and 3 coal-fired units at Grand Lake, Dalhousie and Belledune.
The Point Lepreau nuclear reactor in 1993 delivered 5.323 million MWh (or about 35% of total provincial generation). Half of this is committed to sale in the US to recover costs of construction which greatly exceeded estimates. The major sources of hydro are the Mactaquac, Beechwood and Grand Falls utilities. A tradeoff exists, as oil and nuclear-generated electricity exported to Maine and Massachusetts virtually equals the hydroelectricity imported from Québec.
As part of its so-called "equal opportunity" reforms of the 1960s, the Liberal government of Louis Robichaud abolished the 15 county councils and restricted the responsibilities of the city, town and village councils largely to services for property. Municipal taxes were limited to a percentage of the actual market value of real property in each community. Provincial "equalization" payments assist the poorer municipalities. Property services for rural areas are supplied directly by the province.
In federal politics New Brunswick has traditionally had one representative in the Cabinet and 10 seats in the Senate. It now has 10 seats in the House of Commons; an actual decline of 5 seats since Confederation owing to a reduction in the province's population as a percentage of the Canadian total. Occasionally, it has been able to enhance its influence through cooperation with Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, although these have experienced a similar decline.
Efforts at cooperation for internal development and external influence were formalized in the Council of Maritime Premiers in 1973. In quarterly meetings of the premiers and in agencies such as the Maritime Provinces' Higher Education Commission, the 3 provinces sought to establish regional cooperation, possibly moving toward political union, although this is no longer a goal. Although failures to agree on initial plans for energy, constitutional reform and regional development disappointed many regionalists, cooperation has been achieved in more than 40 other areas.
Major sources of revenues in New Brunswick include taxes on individual income, corporate income, fuel and real property. The provincial personal income tax rate of 55.5% of federal basic tax is, along with the corporate income tax, collected by the federal government for the province.
On 1 April 1997 New Brunswick, along with Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, implemented a harmonized sales tax (HST) of 15%. The harmonized tax combines the national GST with the provincial sales tax. Approximately one-quarter of total provincial revenues comes from federal equalization payments - a plan intended to help poorer provinces maintain a basic standard of services. About 10% is derived from federal payments in support of established programs such as hospital insurance, medicare and postsecondary education.
Major expenditures include health and social services, education, municipalities and service of public debt. Expenditures for physical assets such as bridges, highways, schools and hospitals are considered capital expenditures and are financed through borrowing.
Although New Brunswick was the first province to establish a department of health, economic difficulties resulted in its services lagging far behind most other provinces until the late 1960s.
Today the province is divided into 7 regional health corporations with major regional hospitals at Saint John, Fredericton, Moncton, Bathurst, Campbellton and Edmundston. These are supplemented by 45 smaller institutions. Psychiatric care is offered in the home, in chronic care hospitals at Saint John and Campbellton and in units of the regional hospitals. Hospital and other medical services are provided without premiums under the nationally integrated programs. Small user fees were introduced in 1983.
A provincial plan aids people over 65 in the payment of prescription drugs. Over 4000 senior citizens receive care in the 64 provincially subsidized nursing homes. Public health services include nursing, inspection, control of communicable diseases, maternal and child health care, home care, nutrition, tuberculosis control and the operation of a home dialysis program.
Since 1900, when party affiliation had solidified, New Brunswick has had a balanced 2-party system. However, in the October 1987 election the Liberals swept the House, an almost unprecedented event in Canadian history. Third parties have fared poorly in provincial politics, despite a United Farmers' Party which won 6 seats in 1920, the CCF, which captured 11% of the vote in 1944, the Parti-Acadien, which made a strong showing in 2 constituencies in 1978, and the NDP, which raised its share of the popular vote to 10.2% in 1982 and elected one candidate as well as another in a byelection in 1984. Excepting a lone Progressive elected in 1921, third parties have done little better at the federal level.
The outstanding issues in provincial politics have involved ethnicity and regional disparity. The growth of the population of French origin from 15.7% in 1871 to 38.8% by 1961 has underlain a persistent agitation by Acadian leaders for representation and influence commensurate with numbers and led to the formation of a separatist political party, the Parti-Acadien. Politicians have occasionally exploited tensions between the 2 linguistic groups, but the winning party has traditionally been one which has been able to win a substantial share of support from both.
The election in 1960 of the venturesome young Acadian premier Louis J. Robichaud in a conjunction of circumstances conducive to change contributed to economic and linguistic reforms so rapid and fundamental as to be called revolutionary. The Acadians gained most from the program of equal opportunity, which redistributed incomes from urban centres to a poverty-stricken north, pressed ahead with projects for economic development and proposed language services to both peoples along the lines of the federal Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism.
Of critical importance to the program's success was the simultaneous attack on regional disparity by federal governments. Despite the opposition of prominent corporations and conservatives appalled at the pace of change, Robichaud remained in power for the decade. Nor did his successor, Conservative and Protestant Richard Hatfield, seek to reverse the trend. Indeed, so enthusiastically did his government implement changes along the lines of the program that his party made increasing inroads in Acadian constituencies, defusing the Parti-Acadien's bid for a separate Acadian province. The drive for economic development slowed by the end of the 1970s, owing more in part to the decline of interest by federal governments than to public criticism of spectacular failures, such as the Bricklin sports car.
The administration of Hatfield's successor, Liberal Frank McKenna, attacked the province's deficit and streamlined the government in an effort to bring provincial spending under control. Many of McKenna's budgetary initiatives have since become blueprints for other provinces wrestling with deficits. His success in this area resulted in another large majority victory in the 1991 general election. The fledgling anti-French Confederation of Regions Party (CoR) showed surprising strength in this election, winning 8 seats in their first election, largely as a result of the backlash against the failed Meech Lake Accord (see Meech Lake Accord: Document) and Charlottetown Accord (see Charlottetown Accord: Document). Following the province's trend of brief third-party success, the CRP was virtually eliminated in their second election and McKenna won his third consecutive majority in 1995. In 1999 Bernard Lord led the PCs to the biggest PC victory in the province's history.
The educational reforms of the 1960s relieved municipalities of their responsibilities for education and sought full educational services for both French and English in their own languages. Full curriculum and services are offered in both official languages through 2 parallel systems, from k-12. Financing is provided by the province. During the 1992-93 school year, the existing 41 school districts were amalgamated, resulting in 18 local boards which administer the 13 grades from kindergarten to grade 12. In 1996, school boards were abolished, and were replaced with a parent-driven structure at the school, district and provincial levels. The 18 school districts remain, administered by 8 superintendents (5 anglophone, 3 francophone) who now report to the Department of Education.
Parents, or their representatives, were elected to School Parent Committees in the fall of 1996. Once these committees were in place, 18 District Parent Advisory Councils were established. Two provincial Boards of Education (one anglophone, one francophone) were set up early in 1997, comprising one member from each district, as well as 3-5 appointments from among educational and community leaders. Two interim boards were created to help ease the transition to a new structure.
The Department of Advanced Education and Labour assumes responsibility for community colleges, adult continuing education programs and the New Brunswick College of Craft and Design. The universities and the Maritime Forest Ranger School are under the jurisdiction of the Maritime Provinces' Higher Education Commission. This agency was formed by the Council of Maritime Premiers to promote greater efficiency and effectiveness of higher education offerings and facilities throughout the region.
Aid for postsecondary students who cannot otherwise afford to continue their education beyond high school is provincially administered by Canada Student Loans and 4 provincial programs - student loans, bursaries, achievement grants and travel bursaries.
In 2000-2001 the francophone public school system served 38 387 students in 132 schools under 6 school districts. The anglophone system served 86 555 students in 266 schools under 12 districts. There were 9 community colleges serving over 3400 students. Anglophone university programs served a total of 12 346 full-time and part-time students at the University of New Brunswick (Fredericton and Saint John); at Catholic-affiliated Saint Thomas, which shared library and sports facilities of the Fredericton campus; and at United Church-affiliated Mount Allison University (Sackville). In 1994-95 francophone programs served a total of 7344 students at Université de Moncton and affiliated centres in Edmundston and Shippagan.
Recent trends have included pressure for unilingual schools and school boards by francophones, the emergence of a burgeoning French-immersion program in the anglophone system (22 109 students in 96 schools in 2000-2001) and the establishment of private schools by evangelical denominations. Traditional Anglican boarding schools are Rothesay Collegiate and the Netherwood School for Girls, both at Rothesay.
In recent decades the universities have been centres of literary and artistic endeavour. Mount Allison is famous for its artists and musicians. The University of New Brunswick has developed journals of national stature, such as the literary Fiddlehead and the historical Acadiensis. The Université de Moncton has become a centre of research in Acadian studies. Acadian choirs have gained an international reputation for excellence.
Theatre New Brunswick, a professional theatre company based in Fredericton, offers live theatre in the towns and cities of the province. There are 2 professional French-language theatre companies, Théâtre Populaire d'Acadie (Caraquet) and Théâtre l'Escaouette (Moncton).
There are 2 dance companies, DancEast and DansEncorps, and 14 public art galleries. The Beaverbrook Art Gallery, the province's largest, features exhibitions of New Brunswick, Canadian and international historical and contemporary art.
More than 250 authors belong to the New Brunswick Writers' Federation. Goose Lane Editions and Acadiensis Press provide a scholarly press and local publishers produce popular works of fiction, humour, folklore and family and community history.
Daily newspapers include the Saint John Telegraph-Journal, the Fredericton Daily Gleaner and the MonctonTimes-Transcript (all owned by the Irving interests), L'Acadie Nouvelle and Le Matin. Until its recent bankruptcy, the French-language L'Evangeline was the daily voice of Acadians in the province.
The province receives 4 major TV sources, the CBC, CTV, Global and Radio-Québec. Cable television (which carries the major American networks, the public television channel of the University of Maine and FM radio) is available in much of the province. Several Pay-TV channels have recently begun service. The CBC radio offers 10 outlets in French and 16 in English. Over 450 000 telephones are operated in the province by the New Brunswick Telephone Co Ltd, considered one of the most advanced in local services and in communications technology.
The Provincial Archives in Fredericton is a depository of government records, collections of public and private papers and other historical and genealogical materials. Twenty-six other archives including 2 university archives and the Centre d'études acadiennes assist in the work of documenting the history and development of the province. Two historical settlements, 6 national historic parks, a share in 2 international historic parks, 68 museums, 12 military restorations or other historic building are open to the public. An impressive number of churches, residences and public buildings are also designated of historic interest.
The New Brunswick Museum (and its predecessor) in Saint John has been an exhibitor of natural and human history for over 150 years. The Musée Acadien de Université de Moncton owns a collection of over 30 000 objects related to the Acadians of the Maritime Provinces. The Legislative Library in the capital contains an excellent collection of materials, books, pamphlets and government publications.
Kings Landing, the restoration of a Loyalist settlement up the river from Fredericton, is a spectacular attempt to bring history alive to visitors through the activities of a 19th-century village. Acadian Historical Village at Caraquet represents the history of the survival of the Acadians after the event known as La Déportation (1780-1890.) Fort Beauséjour, a national historic park located near the Nova Scotia border (near Sackville), is a restoration of a significant French fort of the mid-18th century.
Roosevelt Summer Home and Park on Campobello Island, run by a joint Canadian-American Commission, includes the Franklin D. Roosevelt summer estate and neighbouring houses, and offers accommodation for small conferences. Recently a second international park has been designated on Saint Croix Island, the site of Champlain's first settlement in North America.
Most Acadian communities have active historical societies involved in research, genealogy and publishing. Heritage societies have been active in Fredericton, St John, Saint Andrews, Chatham-Newcastle, Bathurst, Moncton and Westmorland, Albert, Kings, Queens and Carleton counties in issues such as the preservation of neighbourhoods, covered bridges and buildings of historical significance and in the operation of museums and educational programs.
When the French attempted settlement, first at the mouth of the St Croix River in 1604 and later at Port-Royal, they were welcomed by the Micmac, who taught them how to survive. After the French had shifted their interest to Québec, the native people helped a few young men who remained, including Charles de Saint-Étienne de La Tour, to establish a fur trade on the Saint John River.
The death of Isaac de Razilly in 1635, leader of a revived settlement at Port-Royal, occasioned a feudalistic struggle over trade and territory between La Tour, Charles de Menou d'Aulnay and Nicolas Denys. On d'Aulnay's death in 1650, La Tour regained control of the Saint John and Denys recovered a fishing and trading post at Miscou harbour and built another at Nepisiguit (Bathurst).
After an extensive career in trade and fisheries along the coast of Acadia, Denys returned to Nepisiguit in 1668 to write an historically important description of Acadia before returning to France in 1671 to have the volume published. The Saint John River valley remained native territory from which the French launched raids against New England in the 1690s, helping to create a deep-seated and persistent hostility to the French presence in Acadia.
Meanwhile the tiny settlement begun at Port-Royal flourished, spreading around the Bay of Fundy to include the Chignecto Isthmus and Shepody on the north shore. The Acadians developed a unique society characterized by a diking technology which enabled them to farm the marshes left by the Bay of Fundy's tides. Their society was also characterized by neglect from the French authorities, and this encouraged the development of a tightly knit and independent community.
Caught in imperial struggle between British and French, most were expelled by the British in 1755 or later and scattered throughout the Thirteen Colonies or were returned to France. Those who returned after the Treaty of Paris(1763), found their lands occupied by several thousand immigrants, largely from New England. Some received grants of land in the Memramcook area, some squatted along the Saint John River and some found employment with the Robin brothers of Jersey in the Channel Islands, who in 1764 began to establish fishing stations along the coast from Gaspé to Cape Breton Island.
After the American Revolution, approximately 14 000 Loyalist refugees came to the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, established the city of Saint John and settled the Saint John and St Croix river valleys. A few penetrated other parts of the province. Hungry for jobs and conscious of their isolation from Halifax, they petitioned for separate colonial status, which was granted in 1784.
Napoleon's continental blockade, which in 1807 cut Britain off from traditional timber supplies from the Baltic region, led to a deliberate effort through protective timber tariffs to foster the colonial industry as a dependable source. Blessed with rivers which made accessible rich stands of spruce and pine, New Brunswick's squared-timber trade boomed for half a century. Timber became a source of development leading to new settlement and giving its own peculiar cast to the economy and to politics and society. Population grew from perhaps 25 000 to almost 200 000 by mid-century.
Indeed governments and historians have been critical of the province's excessive reliance on this single, highly volatile staple. Booms and slumps tended to bankrupt the settler reliant on timber, and many settlers were reduced to wage labour status, dependent on a few influential entrepreneurs in each region. Associated with the timber industry was wooden shipbuilding, for which production sites dotted the coast and rivers of the province and by mid-century turned out over 100 vessels a year, both for export and for the use of the merchants of Saint John.
New Brunswick industries, helped by the Crimean War and American Civil War, and by a reciprocity treaty with the US in natural products, weathered the crisis of the British abandonment of the timber tariffs and Navigation Acts in the late 1840s. But the conjunction of blows which afflicted New Brunswick's economy after Confederation, of which the National Policy of protective tariffs was but one, proved more permanently damaging. The reciprocity treaty was cancelled, timber resources became less merchantable and the wooden vessels lost in their competition with steam-driven, iron-hulled ships. New Brunswickers by the thousand left the declining ports and timber towns to find employment in the US.
Some New Brunswick entrepreneurs were quick to make the transition to a national continental economy. Confederation brought the Intercolonial Railway to New Brunswick by 1876 and the CPR reached Saint John in 1889. Merchants, lumbermen and shipbuilders tended to transfer their capital to iron foundries, textile mills, sugar refineries and other secondary industries whose growth was fostered by the tariff. But eventually many of the new industries, scattered through the province, were taken over by the larger and better capitalized industries of central Canada. The classic pattern emerged of takeover, failure to modernize, closure and the exploitation of the market from expanding plants in central Canada.
The postwar recession of the 1920s saw the continued decline of traditional industries, and the virtual collapse of a manufacturing sector further undercut by adverse federal policies in tariffs and transportation. Investigation of Maritime problems by a federal royal commission and attempted remedial action were largely negated as New Brunswick plunged with the rest of the world into the Depression of the 1930s. Several decades of economic stagnation reduced New Brunswick to a standard of living much lower than the national average. National policies served to increase the disparity, as the tariff (or, during WWII, federal investment) created and maintained a manufacturing sector in central Canada. Meanwhile, Maritime governments lacked the money to maintain essential services.
By 1940 New Brunswick's expenditures on education and health services were slightly over half of the national average; its illiteracy and infant mortality rates were the highest in the country. Despite the recognition of the Rowell-Sirois Report on Dominion-Provincial Relations (1940) stating the need for a fairer distribution of the tax revenues from a national economy, the adjustment grants which the commissioners recommended for the poorer provinces were not adopted until the early 1960s.
The nature of New Brunswick's disparity was 2-fold: the extreme disparity of standards of living compared with other provinces; and the internal disparity between the urban sections of the largely English south and the rural sections of the largely French north. The attack on both proceeded simultaneously.
Within the province, the government moved behind a slogan of "equal opportunity" to provide greater equality in services. Acting on the recommendations of the 1963 Byrne Commission, the Robichaud administration proceeded with more than 125 pieces of legislation to alter radically the division in responsibilities between provincial and county or municipal units of government. Acting on the principle that the provincial government should maintain services to people, the government took responsibility for educational, medical, judicial and social assistance services. To the municipalities it left services to property such as water, sewer, fire protection and local police services. Taxes were to be assessed province-wide on the actual market value of property.
Along with the rationalization in services went a determined effort at economic development. The optimism of the 1960s persuaded both federal and provincial governments that the chronic disparity of province and region could be overcome through industrialization. Federal-provincial attempts at rural development, government investments in electricity generation, mining, forestry, fishery and secondary manufacturing, the building of major highways through the north of the province, and the use of transportation subsidies to help New Brunswick products reach national markets were all part of a federal-provincial effort to push the province's standard of living closer to the national average.
To a large degree, such efforts have been successful. Social and educational services are now on a par with the rest of the country. A well-trained civil service has helped primary industries modernize in a transitional period when the failure to do so would have meant collapse. A favourable infrastructure and direct assistance reversed a pattern of decline in secondary industry.
Nevertheless the province's improved standard of living rests upon a fragile base. The enthusiasm for industrial development by federal governments slowed in the 1970s amid spectacular failures and the jealousies of other regions. Governments have found the maintenance of fiscal transfers less controversial - transfers which in any case return to the centre in the purchase of consumer goods. Of critical importance are the indirect transfers which accompany such traditional welfare state programs as old age pensions and unemployment insurance. No less important are the direct equalization payments and grants for established programs. As past victims and beneficiaries, New Brunswickers have a vital interest in the continuing evolution of the Canadian Constitution.
A.G. Bailey, Culture and Nationality (1972); R.J. Bryn and R.J. Sacouman, eds, Underdevelopment and Social Movements in Atlantic Canada (1977); J. Daigle, ed, The Acadians of the Maritimes: Thematic Studies (1982); J. Fingard, Jack in Port: Sailortowns of Eastern Canada (1982); Ernest R. Forbes, The Maritime Rights Movement 1919-1927: A Study in Canadian Regionalism (1979); W.S. MacNutt, New Brunswick: A History 1784-1867 (1963); G.A. Rawlyk, Nova Scotia's Massachusetts, 1630 to 1784 (1973); S.A. Saunders, Economic History of the Maritime Provinces (1939); W.A. Spray, The Blacks in New Brunswick (1972); H.G. Thorburn, Politics of New Brunswick (1961); R.A. Tweedie, F. Cogswell and W.S. MacNutt, eds,Arts in New Brunswick (1967); L.F.S. Upton, Micmacs and Colonists: Indian-White Relations in the Maritimes, 1713-1867 (1979); E.C. Wright, The Loyalists of New Brunswick (1955); G. Wynn, Timber Colony: A Historical Geography of Early Nineteenth Century New Brunswick (1981). See also the journal Acadiensis.