Murray Treaty of Longueuil, 1760

On 5 September 1760, 3 days before the CAPITULATION OF MONTRÉAL, the chief of the HURON of Lorette, who had accompanied the retreating French army from Québec to the Montréal region, approached General James MURRAY at Longueuil. A TREATY of peace was concluded whereby the Huron came under British protection. It gave them a safe conduct to return without molestation to their village of Lorette near Québec.

However, they were granted much more than a safe conduct. They were received on the same terms as the Canadian militiamen; that is, there would be no punishment for having taken up arms against the British. Furthermore, they were accorded the free exercise of their religion, of their customs and of freedom of trade with the English. In the context of the time, the free exercise of their customs referred to noninterference by Europeans in their lifestyle, local government and justice system. There would be no imposition of laws, taxation or military service, as under the French regime. Freedom of trade had always meant exemption from any duties or legal restrictions imposed on colonists, and was never limited to the fur trade but extended to all commercial activities. The terms of the treaty were respected during the early years of British rule. In time the provincial and federal governments again infringed on the Huron's rights, until in May 1990 the Supreme Court of Canada took notice of the treaty.