Social, Political and Cultural Patterns
After British suzerainty was established, the Micmac were subjected to conscious attempts by government to alter their lifestyle. Most moves to establish them as agriculturalists failed because of badly conceived programs and encroachments upon reserved lands. Their employment as labourers effected irreversible change: crafts, coopering, the porpoise fishery, and road, rail and lumber work integrated the Micmac into the 19th- and 20th-century economy, but left them socially isolated.
Author HAROLD FRANKLIN MCGEE, JR
A.G. Bailey, The Conflict of European and Eastern Algonkian Cultures, 1504-1700 (2nd ed, 1969); Harold Franklin McGee, Jr, ed, The Native Peoples of Atlantic Canada (1984); B.G. Trigger, ed, Handbook of North American Indians, vol 15: Northeast (1978); Harald Prins, The Mi'kmaq: Resistance, Accommodation and Cultural Survival (1996).
Links to Other Sites
Canadian Aboriginal Writing and Arts Challenge
The website for the Canadian Aboriginal Writing and Arts Challenge, which features Canada's largest essay writing competition for Aboriginal youth (ages 14-29) and a companion program for those who prefer to work through painting, drawing and photography. See their guidelines, teacher resources, profiles of winners, and more. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
Mi'kmaq Portraits Collection
A fascinating collection of notes, annotated images and videos depicting Mi'kmaq communities, structures and culture. Check out the petroglyphs and other archaeological items. From the Nova Scotia Museum.
Archaeology in Nova Scotia
Discover the history and archaeology of Nova Scotia at this Nova Scotia Museum website.
Keys to History
Search this "Keys to History" website for fascinating online exhibits about notable people, places, and events in Canadian history. From Montréal's McCord Museum.
Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples
The website for the "Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples." Click on the links for feature articles about Canada's many multicultural communities, access to their extensive digital archives collection, learning modules, and much more. From "Multicultural Canada."
Languages of Canada
A comprehensive online database of languages currently in use in Canada. Also provides details about extinct languages. Check out the "language maps" for more information. Based on "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition." From SIL International, a US website.
Battle of the Ristigouche National Historic Site of Canada
The website for the Battle of the Restigouche National Historic Site, located at the mouth of the Restigouche River, at the far end of Chaleur Bay. From Parks Canada.
Raid on Deerfield
A narrated history of the 1704 Raid on Deerfield and its aftermath from Native and European perspectives. Also features fascinating stories about Native societies, cultures, trade practices, and traditions. This multimedia website is from the Memorial Hall Museum in Deerfield, Massachusetts.
Maliseet - Passamaquoddy Dictionary
This online dictionary is from the Mi'kmaq - Maliseet Institute, University of New Brunswick.
Four Directions Teachings
Elders and traditional teachers representing the Blackfoot, Cree, Ojibwe, Mohawk, and Mi’kmaq share teachings about their history and culture. Animated graphics visualize each of the oral teachings. This website also provides biographies of participants, transcripts, and an extensive array of learning resources for students and their teachers. In English with French subtitles.
A superb multimedia website dedicated to native dance traditions from coast to coast in Canada. Features audio and video clips, in-depth interviews and articles for students, the image research database for scholars, downloadable resource kits for teachers, and more. Produced by Carleton University and The Sumner Group Inc., with the assistance of many other organizations and contributors.
Micmac Nation of Gespeg
The website for the interpretation centre devoted to the history and traditions of the Micmac Nation of Gespeg.
The "conquest" of Acadia, 1710
This site offers online excerpts from "The 'conquest' of Acadia, 1710," a book about the conquest of Port-Royal by British forces in 1710. Relates to Acadian history, native studies, native rights histories, and the socio-political history of the eighteenth century.
Millbrook First Nation
The website for the Millbrook First Nation. Check out the history of this Mi'kmaq community, news about current events, language links, and more.
Gespeg First Nation
Community profile for the Gespeg First Nation from the website for Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.
The Memory Project: Micmac
Listen to an interview with First Nations Canadian veteran Lawrence Vicaire in which he discusses his military service during the Second World War. Also check out related digitized artefacts and memorabilia. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
Shawnadithit grew anxious waiting for her uncle, Longnon, to return to camp at the junction of Badger Brook and the Exploits River, deep in the wilds of Newfoundland...