In the 1660s the war between the Susquehannock in the south and the Cayuga resulted in some of the Cayuga settling briefly along the north shore of Lake Ontario. In 1687, during an invasion of the Cayuga lands led by the French governor Brisay de DENONVILLE, a group of Cayuga hunters were lured into Fort Cataraqui (later renamed FORT FRONTENAC), seized, imprisoned, and tortured, before being taken to France to work as slaves in the King's galleys.
Throughout the 17th century the Cayuga were involved in a series of conflicts known as the IROQUOIS WARS and fought as British allies during the AMERICAN REVOLUTION. The Cayuga were key allies of the British against the French during the 1750s and 1760s: Ottrowana, a Cayuga chief, provided the British with essential intelligence at that time. In 1779, in retaliation against the Cayuga for their support for the British, the American army under General John Sullivan burned many Cayuga villages including the communities at Cayuga Castle and Chonodote. Some survivors took refuge with other First Nations such as the Iroquois, and many Cayuga fled to safety in the GRAND RIVER territory. By the end of the war, almost half the Cayuga and many British Loyalists had moved north to the Grand River area. In exchange for their loyalty, General Frederick HALDIMAND, on behalf of the British, granted land to the Cayuga. In 1794, the Cayuga nation and other Confederacy nations signed the Treaty of Canandaigua with the United States.
See also NATIVE PEOPLE: EASTERN WOODLANDS.
Author THOMAS S. ABLER
Links to Other Sites
Canadian Aboriginal Writing and Arts Challenge
The website for the Canadian Aboriginal Writing and Arts Challenge, which features Canada's largest essay writing competition for Aboriginal youth (ages 14-29) and a companion program for those who prefer to work through painting, drawing and photography. See their guidelines, teacher resources, profiles of winners, and more. From the Historica-Dominion Institute.
Extensive site devoted to current and historical issues of importance to the Six Nations community.
A Heritage Minute about the Iroquois legend of the great Peacemmaker, who created the confederacy known as the League of the Six Nations. From the Historica-Dominion Institute. See also related learning resources.
Languages of Canada
A comprehensive online database of languages currently in use in Canada. Also provides details about extinct languages. Check out the "language maps" for more information. Based on "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition." From SIL International, a US website.
Raid on Deerfield
A narrated history of the 1704 Raid on Deerfield and its aftermath from Native and European perspectives. Also features fascinating stories about Native societies, cultures, trade practices, and traditions. This multimedia website is from the Memorial Hall Museum in Deerfield, Massachusetts.
Four Directions Teachings
Elders and traditional teachers representing the Blackfoot, Cree, Ojibwe, Mohawk, and Mi’kmaq share teachings about their history and culture. Animated graphics visualize each of the oral teachings. This website also provides biographies of participants, transcripts, and an extensive array of learning resources for students and their teachers. In English with French subtitles.
To learn more about the Iroquois languages and to hear Cayuga words and phrases, visit Ohwejagehka Hadegaenage.